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高中英语非谓语动词命题陷阱详解及强化训练[2]

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高中英语非谓语动词命题陷阱详解及强化训练[2]
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高中英语非谓语动词命题陷阱详解及强化训练2

重难点讲解:

9. Both of my parents insisted _______ a computer for me, but I don't think it is necessary.

A. to buy                          B. buying

C. on buying                     D. in buying

陷阱:容易误选B,误认为insist后不能接不定式,但可以接动名词。

分析:答案应选C。其实,动词 insist 后既不能接不定式也不能接动名词,因为insist 通常用作不及物动词;若语义上需接宾语,要借助介词 on或upon,即用于 insist on  (doing) sth;但它有时的确也可用作及物动词,不过其宾语通常只能是 that 从句,而不能是普通的名词、代词或动名词。如:

He insisted on seeing her home. 他坚持送她回家。

I insisted that he (should) stay. 我坚持要他留下。

10. "Do you have anything more ______, sir?" "No. You can have a rest or do something else."

A. typing                          B. to be typed

C. typed                           D. to type

陷阱:容易误选D,根据 have sth to do 这一常用结构推出。

分析:最佳答案是B。确实,在"have+宾语+不定式"结构中,用作定语的不定式通常用主动式表示被动含义,如 I have some clothes to wash等,即尽管其中的 some clothes 与其后的不定式 to wash 具有被动关系,但却习惯上用主动式表示被动意义。但值得指出的是,这类句型的主语与其后的不定式具有主动关系,如 I have some clothes to wash 中的 to wash 就是由该句主语 I 来完成的。而上面一题的情形有所不同,即其中的 to type 这一动作不是由句子主语 you来完成的,而是由说话者"我"来完成的。比较:

Are you going to Shanghai? Do you have anything to take to your son? 你要去上海吗?你有什么东西要带给你儿子吗?

I'm going to Shanghai next week. I have a lot of things to take with me. 下个星期我要去上海,我随身要带很多东西去。

11. She took her son, ran out of the house, _____ him in the car and drove quickly to the nearest doctor's office. 

A. put                              B. to put

C. putting                         D. having put

陷阱:容易误选B或C,误认为这考查非谓语动词的用法。

分析:正确答案选A。句中的took, ran, put, drove 为四并列的谓语动词,其时态应一致。类似地如(答案选A):

I got out of the taxi, _____ the fare and dashed into the station.

A. paid                             B. paying

C. to pay                          D. having paid

但是,下面一题稍有不同:

Hearing the news, he rushed out, ______ the book ______ on the table and disappeared into the distance. 

A. left; lain open                B. leaving; lying open

C. leaving; lie opened         D. left; lay opened

此题答案选B,leaving 在此表结果,lying open 与其前的动词leave有关,leave 后接现在分词作宾语补足语,表示使某人或某物处于做某事的状态中。

12. The boss insisted that every minute ______ made full use of ______ the work well.

A. be, to do                      B. was, doing

C. be, doing                      D. was, to do

陷阱:容易误选B。

分析:其实正确答案是A。分析如下:

(1) 第一空填 be,是因为insisted 后接that从句,从句谓语要用"should+动词原形"这样的虚拟语气,其中的should也可省略。

(2) 第二空要填to do,是因为此句谓语为被动语态,假若将此句转换成主动语态,则是 …should make full use of every minute to do the work well, 句中涉及 make use of … to do sth (利用……做某事)这一结构。另外,还有 make the most of (尽量利用),make the best of (尽量利用)等短语也可能用于此类试题。请看以下类似例子:

(1) The old professor told us every part of the materials should be made use of ______ the power station.

A. to build                        B. building

C. build                            D. built

此题答案选 A,不是 B。为便于理解,可先考虑以下结构:

…make use of every part of the materials to build the power station

由此可见,make use of 的宾语是 every part of the materials,其后的不定式 to build the power station 为目的状语。

(2) Does the way you thought of _______ the water clean make any sense?

A. making                         B. to make

C. how to make                D. having made

此题答案选B,不是A。句子主语是 the way,you thought of 是修饰主语的定语从句,不定式 to make the water clean 也是修饰主语的定语,也就是说,句子主语带有两个定语修饰语。

13. The managers discussed the plan that they would like to see ______ the next year.

A. carried out                    B. carrying out

C. carry out                      D. to carry out

陷阱:几个干扰项均有可能误选。 

分析:答案选A。此句结构较复杂,现分析如下:

(1) that they would like to see _____ the next year 是修饰名词 the plan 的定语从句。

(2) 由于 the plan 与空格处的 carry out 有被动关系,故填过去分词 carried out。

请做以下类似试题:

(1) Who do you think you'd like _____ with you, a boy or a girl?

A. to have go                    B. to have to go

C. to have gone                 D. having to go

在确定答案之前,我们先来看看下面这个句子:

I think I'd like to have a boy go with me. 

句中的 go 要用原形,这是因为其前有表示使役的动词have。在此句中,假若对名词a boy 提问,便可得出:

Who do you think you'd like to have go with you?

对照上面一题,答案很显然是A。

(2) Who did the boss _____ his car this time?

A. make wash                   B. make to wash

C. make washing               D. making to wash

在做此题之前,也请先看看下面这个句子:

The boss made Jack wash his car this time.

假若对句中的名词Jack 提问,便可得出:

Who did the boss make wash his car this time?

由此可知上面题答案为A。

(3) You can never imagine what great difficulty I had ______ your house all by myself.

A. found                           B. finding

C. to find                          D. for finding

此题答案选B。考查的基本结构是 have great difficulty (in) doing sth。

14. How happy we are! The holiday we have been looking forward _______ at last.

A. to has come                  B. to have come

C. to having come             D. has come

陷阱:几个干扰项均有可能误选。

分析:其实正确答案是A。大家知道,短语 look forward to意为"盼望",其中的 to 是介词,而不是不定式符号,所以后接动词要用动名词,许多同学据此便选择了C。但问题是,句中介词 to 的宾语不是have come,而是the holiday。正解的句子分析是:the holiday为句子主语,we have been looking forward to 是修饰主语的定语从句(介词 to 的宾语是引导该定语从句的关系代词 that,被省略),has come 是句子谓语。请做以下类似试题:

(1) The man you referred to _____ just now.

A. comes                          B. come

C. coming                        D. came

答案选D,句子主语为 the man,you referred to 为修饰 the man 的定语从句,空白处填 came,为句子谓语。

(2) The theory he sticks to ______ to be of no use in our studies. 

A. proves                         B. prove

C. proving                        D. be proved

答案选A,he sticks to 是修饰主语 the theory 的定语从句,句子的基本结构为 The theory proves to be of no use in our studies. 

(3) The work he devoted his time to _____ worth praising.

A. was                             B. be 

C. being                           D. been

答案选A,he devoted his time to 是修饰主语 the work 的定语从句。句子的基本结构为 The work was worth praising.

(4) I think this is the very work that we must finish ____ her.

A. to help                         B. help

C. helping                         D. helped

答案是 A。句中空格处填的动词help 并不是 finish 的宾语,正确的句子分析是:that I must finish 是修饰名词 the very work 的定语从句,finish 的宾语是引导该定语从句的关系代词 that,其后的不定式 to help her 是目的状语。

(5) Which do you enjoy ____ your weekend, swimming or fishing?

A. spending                      B. being spent

C. spend                           D. to spend

答案选 D。enjoy 的宾语是句首的疑问词 which,不是其后的动词 spending。此题中的 to spend… 用作目的状语。

(5) What the boy enjoys _____ to have a room of his own.

A. being                           B. to be

C. is                                 D. are

答案选C,而不选A。what the boy enjoys 是主语从句,空格处填的 is 为谓语动词。

(6) Nothing that he suggested _____ to be of any use.

A. prove      B. proved       C. proving       D. to prove

答案选B,而不选C。句子主语是 nothing,that he suggested 是修饰主语的定语从句,suggested 的宾语是引导该定语从句的关系代词 that,而不是其后的动词;句子谓语是 proved。全句意为"他建议的情况没有一条是有用的。"  

(7) The old house we paid a visit _____ at the top of the hill.

A. standing                       B. to stand

C. to standing                   D. to stands

答案选D。we paid a visit to 是修饰the old house 的定语从句,句中的stands 为主句谓语。

(8) The life he is now used _____ quite different from ours. 

A. is                                 B. to be

C. to being                        D. to is

答案选D。句中he is now used to 是修饰 the life 的定语从句,to 后的动词 is 是句子的谓语,句意为"他现在习惯的这种生活与我们的生活很不相同"。

(9) The work he paid special attention _____ to nothing.

A. came                           B. to come

C. to coming                     D. to came

答案选D。句中的he paid special attention to 是修饰 the work 的定语从句,to 后的动词 came 是句子的谓语,句意为"他特别关注的那项工作泡汤了"。

(10) The result what he said would lead _____ his regret in the future. 

A. is                                 B. to be

C. to being                        D. to was

答案选D。句中what he said would lead to 是修饰 the result 的定语从句,to 后的动词 was 是句子的谓语,句意为"他所说的话将导致的结果是他今后的后悔"。

15. _______ the road round to the right and you'll find his house. 

A. Follow                         B. Following

C. To follow                     D. Followed

陷阱:容易误选B或C,误认为这是非谓语动词作状语。 

分析:正确答案选A。根据句中的连词and 可推知它是一个并列句。假若将此题改为下面这样,则答案为B:

_______ the road round to the right, you'll find his house.

A. Follow                         B. Following

C. To follow                     D. Followed

但是,若改成下面一题这样,则答案为C(不定式短语表目的):

_______ the road round to the right, the blind man asked a boy to guide him.

A. Follow                         B. Following

C. To follow                     D. Followed

请做以下试题,答案均选A,都是因为句中的并列连词 and(填空句为祈使句):

(1) _______ to the top of the hill, and you can see the whole of the town.

A. Get                              B. To get

C. Getting                         D. Having got

(2) ______ the milk and set a good example to the other children. 

A. Drink                           B. To drink

C. Drinking                       D. Having drinking

(3) ______ me, and then try to copy what I do. 

A. Watch                          B. Watching

C. To watch                     D. Have watching

(4) _____ through this book and tell me what you think of it. 

A. Look                            B. Looking

C. To look                        D. Having looked

(5) _____ it with me and I'll see what I can do.

A. Leave                           B. Leaving

C. If you leave                  D. When left

有时不用连词连接句子,而用破折号,情况也是一样(答案均选A)。如: 

(6) _____ down the radio - the baby's asleep in the next room.

A. Turn                            B. Turning

C. to turn                         D. To have turned

(7) _____ some of this juice - perhaps you will like it.

A. Try                              B. Trying

C. To try                          D. To have tried

以下各题也应选A,是因为句中的从属连词 when, before, until 等(填空句为祈使句):

(8) ______ him enough time to get home before you telephone. 

A. Give                            B. To give

C. Giving                          D. Given

(9) ______ left when you get to the end of the street. 

A. Keep                            B. Keeping

C. To keep                       D. Kept

(10) ______ your hand over your mouth when you cough. 

A. Put                              B. Putting

C. To put                         D. To be putting

(11)______ until the lights have turned to green. 

A. Wait                            B. To wait

C. Waiting                        D. Having waited

(12) ______ the pieces of cloth with a loose stitch before finally sewing them together. 

A. Join                             B. To join

C. Joining                         D. Joined

以下各题也应选A,因为填空句为祈使句:

(13) I don't want to listen a long story - just _____ me the result. 

A. tell                               B. telling

C. to tell                           D. to be telling

(14) Why stand there watching - _____ and help us!

A. come                           B. coming

C. to come                       D. to be coming

(15) Don't waste your money on silly things - ______ it. 

A. save                             B. to save

C. saving                          D. having saved

(16) First ______ the rice by washing it, then ______ it in boiling water. 

A. prepare, cook               B. preparing, cooking

C. preparing, cook             D. prepare, cooking

(17) To test eggs, _____ them in a bowl of water: if they float they're bad, if they sink they're good. 

A. put                              B. putting

C. to put                           D. to be putting

但是请注意,类似下面这样的题目情形有所不同,所填部分为目的状语(用不定式,即答案选B):

(18) ______ French well, she went to France to live with his cousins.

A. Study                           B. To study

C. Studying                      D. Having studied

(19) _____ late in the morning, Mr. Smith turned off the alarm.

A. Sleep                           B. To sleep

C. Sleeping                       D. Having slept

(20) ______ the flies out, we had to shut all the doors and windows.

A. Keep                            B. To keep

C. Keeping                        D. Having kept

(21) ______ their service, the workers of the hotel are active in learning English.

A. Improving                    B. To improve

C. Improve                       D. Having improved

 

【典型例题】

27. He is a man of few words, and seldom speaks until _______ to.

A. spoken                         B. speaking

C. speak                           D. be spoken

28. When I handed the report to John, he said that George was the person _______.

A. to send                         B. for sending it

C. to send it to                  D. for sending it to

29. _______ on time, this medicine will be quite effective.  

A. Taking                         B. Being taken

C. Taken                          D. Having taken

30. The film star walked to his car, ______ a crowd of journalists. 

A. followed by                  B. following by

C. to follow                      D. to be followed by

31. After describing the planned improvements, she went on _______ how much they would cost. 

A. to explain                     B. explaining

C. to be explaining             D. having explained

32. Please excuse me _______ your letter by mistake. 

A. to open                        B. to have opened

C. for opening                   D. in opening

33. Please remember _______ the plants while I'm away. 

A. watering                       B. to be watering

C. to water                       D. being watering

34. Certainly I posted your letter - I remember ______ it. 

A. posting                         B. to post

C. to be posting                 D. have posted

35. Stop _______ me to hurry up. I can only go so fast.

A. to tell                           B. telling

C. to have told                  D. having told

36. Remember _______ off the light when _______ to bed.

A. turning, going               B. to turn, to go

C. turning, to go                D. to turn, going 

37. _______ time, he'll make a first-class tennis player.

A. Having given                 B. To give

C. Giving                          D. Given

38. _______ in 1636, Harvard is one of the most famous universities in the United States.

A. Being founded               B. It was founded

C. Founded                       D. Founding

39. The lady said she would buy a gift for her daughter with the ________.

A. 20 dollars remained       B. 20 dollars to remain 

C. remained 20 dollars       D. remaining 20 dollars

40. The picture _______ on the wall is painted by my nephew. 

A. having hung                  B. hanging

C. hangs                           D. being hung

41. With a lot of difficult problems ________, the newly-elected president is having a hard time. 

A. settled                          B. setting

C. to settle                        D. being settled

42. Having a trip abroad is certainly good for the old couple, but it remains _______ whether they will enjoy it.

A. to see                           B. to be seen

C. seeing                          D. seen

43. Tony was very unhappy for _______ to the party.

A. having not been invited  B. not having invited  

C. having not invited          D. not having been invited

44. "Good morning. Can I help you?" "I'd like to have this package _______."

A. be weighed                   B. to be weighed

C. to weigh                       D. weighed

45. What have we said _______ her so happy?

A. makes                          B. to make

C. made                           D. has made

46. What worried the child most was ______ to visit his mother in the hospital.

A. his not allowing             B. his not being allowed

C his being not allowed      D. having not being allowed

47. "Which sweater is yours?" "The one _______ No. 9."

A. that marked                  B. was marked with

C. which marked               D. marked with

48. If the car won't start, _____ it. 

A. try push                       B. try pushing

C. to try pushing               D. to try to push

49. They stayed up until midnight _____ the old year out and the new year in. 

A. and saw                       B. to see

C. seeing                          D. for seeing 

 

答案与解析:

27. 选 A。until spoken to 可视为 until he is spoken to 之略。

28. 选C,不定式短语to send it to 用作状语,修饰其前的名词 the person。注意句尾的介词 to 不能省略,因为被修饰的名词 the person 为介词 to 的逻辑宾语。

29. 选 C。this medicine 与动词take 为被动关系,故用过去分词。

30. 选A。从句意上看,人群跟在明星后面,反过来,明星便是被人群跟着。

31. 选A。go on doing sth = 继续做同一事情,go on to do sth = 做完某事后续继做某事。

32. 选C。excuse sb for doing sth 意为"原谅某人做了某事"。

33. 选C。remember doing sth = 记住曾经做过的事,remember to do sth = 记住要做的事。

34. 选A。remember doing sth = 记住曾经做过的事,remember to do sth = 记住要做的事。

35. 选B。根据下文的 I can only go so fast 知前文应是叫对方不要老催自己快走。比较:stop doing sth = 停止做某事,stop to do sth = 停下正在做的事去干另一事。

36. 选D。一是分清以下两个结构:remember to do sth=记住做某事,remember doing sth=记住曾做过某事;二是注意 when going to bed 相当于 when you go to bed。

37. 选 D。由于动词 give 与其逻辑主语 he 是动宾关系,故用过去分词,即选 D。其中 Given time 可视为 If he is given time 之略。

38. C。由于 Harvard(哈佛大学)与 found(建立)是被动关系,且因句中有 in 1636,故选 C。注意不能选 B,否则前后两句之间缺少必要的连词。

39. 选D,由于 remain 为不及物动词,所以包含过去分词 remained的A和C不宜选(因为两者均含有被动意味);选项B也不宜选,不定式to remain 用作修饰 20 dollars 的后置定语,由于彼此之间有逻辑上的动宾关系,故不妥(因为 remain 不及物)。现在分词remaining 的意思是"剩下的"。

40. 选 B。动词 hang 表示"悬挂"时,可用作及物或不及物动词,此处填 hanging 或 hung 均可,但不能填 being hung,因为它表示动作正在进行,而此处表示的是一种悬挂的状态。

41. 选 C。"with+名词+不定式"的意思是"有……要……"。又如:

I can't go out with all these clothes to wash.  要洗这些衣服,我无法出去了。

With such good cardres to carry out the Party's policy we feel safe. 有这样的好干部执行党的政策,我们感到放心。

42. 选 B。remain 作"尚需"解,是连系动词,其后要接不定式作表语。由于 see 与 it(形式主语,指whether they will enjoy it)是动宾关系,因此用不定式的被动式。

43. 选 D。否定词 not 应放在动名词之前,故排除A、C;又因为 Tony 与 invite 是被动关系,故选 D。

44. 选 D。"have+名词或代词+过去分词"结构在此表示"请某人做某事"。

45. 选 B。to make her so happy 是结果状语。注意词序What have we…,不是 What we have…。比较下面一题(答案选D):

What we have said ________ her so happy.

A. makes                          B. to make

C. made                           D. has made

46. 选 B。否定词 not 应放在-ing 形式之前,逻辑主语 his 之后,由此可排除 C 和 D;又因为 the child 与 allow 是被动关系,故选 B。

47. 选D。marked with 可视为 which is marked with No. 9 之略。

48. 选B。注意句首为if 引导的条件状语从句,填空句为祈使句,故第一个动词应是try,不应是 to try;另外,try doing sth 的意思是"做某事试试看有何效果"。

49. 选 B。不定式表目的。

 

【参考资料】

非谓语动词(二)--动词-ing形式

(二)-ing形式:动词的-ing形式也是一种非谓语动词。-ing形式仍保留有动词的特征,可以带有其所需要的宾语或状语而构成-ing短语。

1. -ing的形式:-ing有一般式和完成式。及物动词的-ing还有主动语态和被动语态,而不及物动词的-ing则没有被动语态。现在以及物动词make 和不及物动词go为例,将其-ing各种形式列表如下:

动词  语态

形式及物动词make不及物动词go

主动语态被动语态主动语态

一般式makingbeing madegoing

完成式having madehaving been madehaving gone

2. -ing形式的基本用法。

(1)作主语:Seeing is believing.百闻不如一见。Talking is easier than doing. -ing作主语时,如果其结构较长,可用it作形式主语,而将作主语的-ing后置。如:It isn't much good writing to them again. It's no use waiting here.

(2)作表语:Her job is washing and cooking. My hobby is collecting stamps.

(3)作宾语:① 作及物动词的宾语。She likes drawing very much;② 作某些短语动词的宾语。 Mary is thinking of going back to New York;③ do+限定词(my, some, any, the等)+ -ing,表示"做…事"之意,如:We often do our cleaning on Saturday afternoon. Will you do any shopping on Saturday this afternoon? ④ 作介词的宾语:Her sister is good at learning physics;⑤ 作形容词worth, busy等的宾语:This book is well worth reading. -ing作宾语带有宾语补足语时,要用it作为形式宾语,而将作宾语的-ing后置,如:We found it no good talking like that. Do you think it necessary trying again?

(4)作定语:The sleeping child is only five years old. Do you know the man standing at the gate? 注:-ing形式作定语用时,如果-ing只是一个单词,就位于其修饰的名词之前,如果是-ing短语,就位于其修饰的名词之后,-ing作定语时,被-ing所修饰的名词就是该-ing的逻辑主语。另外,-ing作定语用时,其动作和句子谓语动词所表示的动作是同时进行的,如果不是同时进行的,就不能用-ing作定语,要使用定语从句,如:The girl who wrote a letter there yesterday can speak English very well.

(5)作宾语补足语:We can see steam rising from the wet clothes. 注:当-ing在复合宾语中作宾语补足语用时,句中宾语就是这个-ing的逻辑主语,可以带有这种复合宾语的动词有see, watch, hear, observe, feel, find, have, keep等。

(6)作状语:① 时间状语:Seeing Tom, I couldn't help thinking of his brother. 分词在句中作时间状语时,其前一般可加when或while,如:When crossing street, you must be careful. ② 原因状语:Being ill, he didn't go to school yesterday. ③ 方式或伴随状语:Mary stood at the school gate waiting for Betty. 

3. 主动语态-ing完成式的基本用法。主动语态-ing完成式所表示的动作发生在句中谓语动词所表示的动作之前,一般在句中作时间或原因状语用。句中的主语是它的逻辑主语,并且是它所表示的动作的执行者,如:Having answered the letter, she went on to read an English novel.

4. 被动语态-ing一般式的基本用法。被动语态-ing一般式所表示的动作是一个正在进行中的被动动作,而且这个被动动作也是和句中谓语所表示的动作同时发生的。它一般在句中作定语或状语用。如:The truck being repaired there is ours.

5. 被动语态-ing完成式的基本用法。被动语态-ing完成式所表示的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前,在句中一般作状语用。如:Having been shown the lab, we were taken to see the library.

6. -ing形式的复合结构。在-ing前加物主代词或名词所有格即构成-ing的复合结构。其中的物主代词或名词所有格为-ing的逻辑主语。这种结构在句中可作主语、宾语或表语,如:Your smoking and drinking too much will do harm to your health. 但在口语中,这种结构如作宾语用,其中的物主代词常用人称代词的宾格,名词的所有格常用名词的普通格代替,如:She insisted on Peter's (or Peter)going there first.

7. -ing形式与动词不定式在句中作主语、表语、宾语时的区别。一般说来,表示一个比较抽象或泛指的动作时多用-ing形式。表示一个具体某一次的动作时,多用动词不定式,如:Our job is making steel. She likes playing the piano, but she doesn't want to play it today.

8. -ing形式与动词不定式在句中作定语的区别。-ing形式作定语用时,其动作一般与句中谓语动词所表示的动词同时发生,而动词不定式作定语时,其动作一般发生在句中谓语动词所表示的动作之后。如:The girl writing a letter there can speak English very well./I have three letters to write.

9. -ing形式与动词不定式在作宾语补足语时的区别。(1)不定式作宾补时,其动作一般发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之后,如:I have told them to come again tomorrow.(2)在see, watch, hear, feel等之后,如果用-ing形式作宾补,表示其动作正在进行中,而用不带to的不定式作宾补时,不定式所表示的动作是一个动作的过程,如:I hear her singing in the room.我听见她正在屋里唱歌。 I hear her sing in the room.我听见她在屋里唱过歌。

10. -ing形式与动词不定式在句中作状语的区别。-ing形式在句作状语表示时间、原因、方式或伴随情况,而动词不定式一般式在句中作状语时,一般是作目的或结果状语,如:Not receiving his letter, I wrote to him again./ I looked into the window to see what was going on inside.

(三)过去分词:

1. 过去分词的基本用法:过去分词只有一种形式,也没有主动语态,它所表示的动作是一个被动的或是已完成的动作。过去分词在句中也可用作定语、表语、宾语或状语等成分。过去分词在句中作某种成分时,其逻辑主语一般为该分词所表示的动作的承受者,如:

(1)作定语:过去分词作定语时,如果这个分词是一个单词,就位于其修饰的名词之前,如果是分词短语,就位于其修饰的名词之后。被过去分词所修饰的名词,就是该分词的逻辑主语,如:The stolen car was found by the police last week.

(2)作表语:过去分词作表语时,表示其逻辑主语所处的状态,其逻辑主语就是句中的主语,如:The glass is broken.这个玻璃杯是破的。 注:过去分词作表语时,和动词的被动语态结构相似,但两者表达的意义不同,如:The glass was broken by my little brother.这个玻璃杯是被我小弟弟打破的。作表语用的过去分词在许多词典中已列为形容词,如:crowded, devoted, discouraged, done, dressed, drunk, experienced, frightened, gone, hurt, interested, killed, known, learned, lost, pleased, satisfied, shut, surprised, tired, undressed, worried, astonished, broken, completed, covered等。

       (3)作宾语补足语:过去分词作宾语补足语时,句中的宾语就是其逻辑主语,如:When I opened the door, I found the ground covered by fallen leaves. 注:动词have后的复合宾语中,宾语补足语如为过去分词,常表示该分词所表示的动作是由别人来执行的而不是句中主语自己来执行的,如:I had my bike repaired yesterday. 昨天我(找别人)把我的自行车给修了。

       (4)作状语:过去分词作状语时,相当于一个状语从句,该结构的逻辑主语一般都是主句的主语,是过去分词所表示意义的逻辑宾语。为了使作状语的过去分词意义更加明确,常在分词前加when, if, while, though, as等连词,如:Seen from the hill/ When seen from the hill, our town looks beautiful.; Given more time/ If given more time, we could have done it better.(we是该结构的逻辑主语,是give的逻辑宾语。)

       独立主格:上述-ing和过去分词的用法中,-ing和过去分词在句中均有逻辑主语,但有时它们也能有自己的独立的主语,这种独立的主语,一般为名词或代词,位于其前之前,和-ing或过去分词构成独立主格。独立主格在句中一般只作状语用,而-ing和过去分词作用的形式,则要根据它们所表示的动作和句中谓语动词所表示的时间关系而定。至于独立主格中是使用-ing或是过去分词,则要根据它们的主语和其所表示的动作的主动被动关系而定,如:The bell ringing, we all stopped talking. 注:The work having been finished, she sat down to have a rest. ① 独立结构中的being或having been常可省去,如:The meeting (being) over, all left the room. ② 作伴随状语的独立结构常可用with短语来代替,如:She read the letter, tears rolling down her cheeks./ She read the letter with tears rolling down her cheeks.

2. -ing形式与过去分词的区别:

(1)语态不同:-ing形式表示主动概念,及物动词的过去分词表示被动概念。an inspiring speech鼓舞人心的演说;the inspired audience受鼓舞的听众。

(2)时间关系不同:现在分词所表示的动作一般是正在进行中的动作,而过去分词所表示的动作,往往是已经完成的动作,如:The changing world正在发生的世界;the changed world已经起了变化的世界。

 

【模拟试题】

非谓语动词(二)

1. Alien said that his trip was _______.

A. interested                B. interest              

C. interesting                 D. of interest

2. We can't understand ______ a decision until it is too late.

A. him to postpone to make              B. his postponing to make

C. him to postpone making            D. his postponing making

3. I couldn't understand ______ at the poor child.

A. you to laugh                               B. you laugh         

C. why laugh                                     D. you laughing

4. It's no use______ with him. You might as well ______ with a stone wall.

A. arguing, argue                                  B. to argue, arguing    

C. arguing, arguing                          D. to argue, argue

5. It is no good ______ today's work for tomorrow.

A. to leave                                B. leaving            

C. that you leave                            D. leave

6. The old man's ______ pity on the snake led to his own death.

A. take                                    B. taking             

C. being taken                              D. have

7. It's very kind ______ you ______ say so.

A. of, to                                  B. for, to             

C. to, to                                  D. of, /

8. Some people's greatest pleasure is ______ .

A. fishing                                  B. to fish              

C. to be fish                              D. being fishing

9. Remember ______ the book, when you have finished it.

A. putting back                               B. having put back    

C. to put back                             D. will put back

10. You didn't hear us come back last night. That's good. We tried ______ noisy.

A. to not be                               B. not to be           

C. being not                                      D. not being

11. Though he failed, he tried _______ it again and again.

A. to do                                  B. doing             

C. do                                    D. done.

12. You'll regret ______ those words. You may hurt her feelings.

A. say                                   B. to say              

C. having said                             D. to have said

13. You can keep the book until you ______ .

A. have finished reading              B. finish to read

C. will finish reading                  D. have finished to read

14. We are looking forward to ______ another chance ______ it again.

A. be given, to try                           B. give, to try         .

C. giving, trying                            D. having, to try

15. Most of the students enjoy_____ stamps.

A. collect                                B. to collect           

C. collecting                               D. collected

16. Excuse me for _____ in without ______. 

A. coming, asking                           B. coming, being asked  

C. to come, asking                           D. to come, being asked

17. People couldn't help ______ the foolish girl.

A. laugh at                                  B. to laugh at         

C. laughing at                              D. laughing 

18. "What do you think of the book?"      "Oh. excellent, it's worth _______ a second time."

A. to read                                        B. to be read          

C. reading                                 D. being read

19. "I usually go there by train."     "Why not ______ by boat for a change?"

A. to try going                                    B. trying to go        

C. to try and go                            D. try going

20. I was too excited ______ .

A. speak                                         B. to speak           

C. not to speak                                    D. speaking

21. Charles Babbage is generally considered ______ the first computer.

A. to invent                               B. inventing          

C. to have invented                          D. having invented

22. It is no use _____to come now. He is busy.

A. ask him                                 B. to ask him         

C. that you ask him                                D. asking him

23. The murder was brought in, with his hands _______ behind his back.

A. being tied                               B. having tied    

C. to be tied                                      D. tied

24. Mrs Smith warned her daughter ____ after drinking.

A. never to drive                            B. to never drive      

C. never driving                            D. never drive.

25. The computer centre, ______ last year is very popular among the students in this school.

A. open                                   B. opening           

C. having opened                            D. opened.

26. Do you know the boy _______ under the big tree?

A. lay                                     B. lain                

C. laying                                  D. lying

27. Most of the artists ______ to the party 'were from South Africa.

A. invited                                 B. to invite            

C. being invited                             D. had been invited

28. English is a language ______ in many countries.

A. spoken                               B. speaking          

C. be spoken                             D. to speak

29. "Can you read?" Mary said       to the notice.

A. angrily, pointing                          B. and point angrily    

C. angrily, pointed                           D. and angrily pointing

30. There was a terrible noise _______ the sudden burst of Tight.

A. followed                                B. following         

C. to be followed                                  D. being followed

31. ____ more attention, the trees could have grown better.

A. Given                                  B. To give            

C. Giving                                  D. Having given

32. _____their students, the famous teacher came into the hall.

A. Followed                          B. Followed by

C. Being followed                 D. Having been followed

33. Your flat needs _____ . Would you like me       it for you?     

A. to clean, to do                                B. cleaning, doing  

C. cleaning, to do                           D. to be cleaned, doing

34. Does your new secretary  ____ short hand?

A. know to take                             B. know how to take  

C. know how take                                 D. know how taking

35. Tommy had his big brother _____ his shoes for him.

A. to tie                                  B. tie         

C. tied                                   D. tying

36. Would you please ______ write on the textbooks?

A. don't                                   B. not to            

C. not                                      D. to not

37. I'd ______ the operation unless it is absolutely necessary.

A. rather not have                           B. rather not to have   

C. not rather had                           D. rather not having

38. Your mother and I are looking forward________ you.

A. of seeing                               B. for seeing          

C. to see                                 D. to seeing

39. The girl couldn't_____ how red his face was.

A. help to notice                              B. be helping to notice   

C. be helping noticing                         D. help noticing

40. Excuse me, but it is time to have your temperature ______.   

A. taking                                  B. to take             

C. take                                   D. taken

 

非谓语动词(三)

1. There is no question of _____ able to finish it himself.

A. Tom was                                B. Tom's being       

C. Tom's be                                      D. Tom is

2. The new shopping center _____ now will be put into use by the end of this year.

A. built                                   B. be built            

C. being built                                D. to be built

3. "Have you had supper?"       "Not yet. The meal_____."

A. are being cooked                            B. is being cooked    

C. is cooked                                D. are cooked

4. "I'm glad ______ you here in the hotel."             "It's my great pleasure to have you ______ us."

A. meeting, to                             B. to have met, with   

C. having met, among                         D. to meet, of

5. I'm afraid I can't make myself _____ in English.

A. understanding                            B. understand         

C. to be understood                                D. understood

6. Although in a hurry, Wilson ______.

A. couldn't stop walking              B. couldn't help the stranger

C. stopped to help the stranger        D. didn't answer the stranger

7. Janet is easy _____.

A. for getting along with             B. by getting along with

C. to get along with                       D. got along with

8. Don't forget ______ the light when you leave.

A. turn off                                B. to turn off         

C. turning off                                     D. turned off

9. The mother is very glad; her baby is beginning ______.

A. understanding what she means      B. to understand that she meant

C. to understand what she means      D. noticing what she means ,

10. I think this story is _____ .

A. worth being read                                   B. worth reading      

C. worth to read                                  D. worth of reading

11. This scientist is a man ______ praise.

A. worth to                                B. worthy to be       

C. worthy of                               D. worth

12. I don't want ______ any more trouble, you see?

A. there being                              B. it to be             

C. it being                                 D. there to be

13. When she returned home, she found the window open and something ______.

A. stealing                                 B. missed            

C. stolen                                    D. to steal

14. Strictly _____, it isn't worth the price you are asking.

A. to speak                                  B. speaking           

C. speak                                 D. spoken

15. Time ______, they'll come here to watch us ______ football.

A. permitted, playing                         B. permitted, to play   

C. permitting, play                          D. permitting, to play

16. The man was seen _____ into the courtyard.

A. stealing                                 B. stolen             

C. be stealing                                     D. had stolen

17. Bob should love _____ to the party tomorrow evening.

A. taking                                  B. to be taken          

C. to take                                        D. being taken

18. Tom had no choice but _____ the classroom with his classmates.

A. to clean                                B. clean              

C. cleaning                                D. cleans

19. Mr. Brown said that his car needed

A. to be repaired                            B. being repaired      

C. be repairing                                    D. to repair

20. The old man didn't know whether to sell the car or____ .

A. being kept for later use             B. kept for later use

C. to keep it for later use             D. to be kept it for later use

21. The noise of the desks _____ could be heard in the next classroom.

A. being opened and closed             B. opened and closed

C. having been opened and closed      D. to be opened and closed

22. I remember _____ someone ____ the umbrella away.

A. to see, take                                 B. having seen, to take         

C. to see, to take                                  D. having seen, take

23. She was noticed ______ the shop.

A. to enter                                B. enter              

C. having entered                           D. entered

24. I couldn't help _____ when I heard the joke.

A. being laughed                                 B. laughing           

C. to be laughing                            D. to laugh

25._____, she burst into tears.

A. Deeply moved                     B. Deeply moving

C. As she deeply moved               D. As she was deeply moving

26. The problem requires ______.

A. studying with great care                 B. to study carefully

C. to be studied without carelessness  D. taking great care of studying it

27. _____ carelessly, the boy made mistakes here and there.                .

A. being written                            B. Wrote            

C. Write                                   D. Writing

28. He would rather ______ his parents with their housework than _____ out to play games.

A. to help, to go                                   B. help, go            

C. help, to go                                     D. to help, go

29. The boy had his leg _____ while ____ football.

A. broken, playing                                    B. break, play    

C. broken, played                           D. broke, was playing

30. Having finished the work,_____.                      

A. it was almost six o'clock

B. a postman came and delivered the evening paper and some letters

C. supper had been already prepared                     

D. we had a rest and then had supper

31. He is ill. He has kept_____.

A. coughing all along                 B. to cough at night

C. cough since yesterday           D. being coughed day and night

32. It is no use ____ without _____.

A. to talk, doing                     B. taking, being done

C. talking, doing                  D. being talked, being to do

33. "I usually go there by boat."              "Why not _____ by train for a change?"

A. try going                               B. to try going        

C. trying to go                                    D. to try and go

34. _____, she felt quite shy at the party.

A. As she a stranger                 B. Being a stranger

C. According to a stranger          D. She like a stranger

35. Every morning he gets up early and practises ______ and then _____ to school.

A. to read English, go              B. reading English, going

C. reading English, goes              D. of reading English, goes

36. While _____ football on tin playground, I found 'my keys ______.

A. playing, lost                                 B. play, losing         

C. played, being lost                         D. having played, lost

37. ____ the same mistakes again made his parents very angry.

A. His having made                          B. He has made       

C. He had making                           D. Him making

38. Dick made it ______ to all his friends.

A. to know                                       B. known            

C. know                                         D. knowing

39. Anna spends one hour a day _____ spoken English.

A. practise                                B. to practise          

C. on practising                                   D. in practising

40. No one was surprised at _____ the examination.

A. he passing                                     B. his pass            

C. him pass                               D. his passing

41. Although swimming is his favourite sport, yet he doesn't like _____ today.

A. to swim                                       B. swimming         

C. swim                                         D. to have swim

42. She sat at the desk and set about _____ a letter to her friend.

A. to write                                B. writing            

C. write                                  D. written

43. This soup is cold; it needs _____.

A. to heat                                        B. to be heated        

C. being hot                                      D. heated

44. I went ______a balloon but I didn't see anyone _____ balloons.

A. to buy, to sell                            B. to buy, selling     

C. buying, selling                           D. buying, to sell

45. Anna is often heard ______songs in her room                            

A. sung                                   B. singing           

C. sing                                    D. to sing

46. The more you practise ______ English, the better your _____ English will be.

A. to speak, speaking                          B. speaking, spoken   

C. spoken, spoken                            D. spoken, speaking



【试题答案】

非谓语动词(二)

1~5 CDDAB  6~10 BAACB  11~15 BCADC  16~20 BCCDB  21~25 CDDAD 26~30 DAAAB  31~35 ABCBB  36~40 CADDD

 

非谓语动词(三)

1~5 BCBBD  6~10 CCBCB  11~15 CDCBC  16~20 ABAAC  21~25 ADABA 26~30 ADBAD  31~35 ACABC  36~40 AABDD  41~46 ABBBDB





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