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高中英语非谓语动词命题陷阱详解及强化训练[1]

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高中英语非谓语动词命题陷阱详解及强化训练[1]
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高中英语非谓语动词命题陷阱详解及强化训练1

重难点讲解:

A cook will be immediately fired if he is found _______ in the kitchen.  

A. smoke        B. smoking     C. to smoke    D. smoked

______ the house on fire, he dialed 911.

A. To see       B. Seeing       C. Seen         D. Having seen


1. Everyone in our class was working hard and doing what we could _______ a good college.

A. enter                            B. to enter

C. entering                        D. entered

陷阱:容易误选A。有的同学一看到空格前的情态动词 could 就断定此处应填动词原形 enter。

分析:其实正确答案应是B。此句为省略句,即在 could 后省略了动词 do,若把句子补完整应为Everyone in our class was working hard and doing what we could do to enter a good college。即句中的不定式短语(to enter a good college)是用作目的状语的,而不是与情态动词(could)一起构成谓语。请再看类似例句:

(1) They did what they could to comfort her. 他们尽量安慰她。

(2) They did everything they could to save her life. 他们尽一切力量拯救她的性命。

(3) He studies as hard as he could to catch up with his classmates. 他拼命学习以便赶上他的同学。

值得指出的是,这也并不是说今后只要遇到类似结构的题就一定选带to不定式。请看以下试题:

(4) He ran as fast as he could _____ to catch the early bus.

A. to hope                        B. hope

C. hoping                         D. hoped

此题的答案是 C不是A,其中的现在分词短语 hoping to catch the early bus 用作伴随状语。

(5) He spent every minute he could _____ spoken English.

A. practise                        B. to practise

C. practising                     D. practised

此题答案选 C,这与前面动词 spent 的搭配有关,即 spend … (in) doing sth。若将此句补充完整,即为 He spent every minute he could spend in practising spoken English.

(6) Before going abroad he devoted all he could ____D____ his oral English.

A. improve                       B. to improve

C. improving                     D. to improving

此题答案选D,注意两点:一是 devote … to … 是固定搭配,意为"把……贡献给……";二是其中的 to 是介词,不是不定式符号,后接动词时要用动名词。

2. He knows nothing about it, so he can't help _______ any of your work. 

A. doing                           B. to do

C. being doing                   D. to be done

陷阱:容易误选B,根据 can't help doing sth 这一结构推出。

分析:其实答案应选A。比较以下结构:

can't help to do sth = 不能帮助做某事

can't help doing sth = 禁不住做某事,情不自禁地做某事

又如下面一题,答案也是 B:

She can't help ____ the house because she's busy making a cake.

A cleaning                        B. to clean

C. cleaned                        D. being cleaned

再请看以下试题:

While shopping, people sometimes can't help _____ into buying something they don't really need.

A. to persuade                   B. persuading

C. being persuaded            D. be persuaded

此题应选C,句中的 can't help 意为"禁不住"(注意根据句意用被动形式)。

3. All her time _______ experiments, she has no time for films.

A. devoted to do                B. devoted to doing

C. devoting to doing          D. is devoted to doing

陷阱:几个干扰项均有可能误选。

分析:此题最佳答案为B。现分析如下:

(1) devote 意为"致力于,献身于",主要用 devote…to…或be devoted to,其中的to 是介词,不是不定式符号,故后接动词时要用动名词,不用不定式。

(2) 选A错误:若将 do 改为 doing 则可以。

(3) 选B正确:all her time devoted to doing experiments为独立主格结构,用作状语。

(4) 选C错误:因为all her time 与 devote 为被动关系,故应将devoting改为devoted。

(5) 选D错误:若单独看 All her time is devoted to doing experiments,此句并没有错,但问题是逗号前后两个简单句没有必要的连接方式,所以从整体上看仍不对,假若在后一句的句首加上and或so,则可选D,或将D将中的is 改为 being也可选它。

请做以下类似题(答案均选A):

(1) All the preparations for the project ______, we're ready to start. 

A. completed                       B. have been completed

C. had been completed          D. been completed

(2) Such _______ the case, I couldn't help but______ him.

A. being, support                  B. was, support  

C. has been, supporting         D. is, to support

比较以下各题,答案选B,因为句中使用了并列连词and:

(1) All the preparations for the project ______, and we're ready to start. 

A. completed                       B. have been completed

C. had been completed          D. been completed

(2) Such _______ the case, I couldn't help but______ him.

A. being, support                  B. was, support  

C. has been, supporting         D. is, to support

4. The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier, ______ it more difficult.

A. not make                         B. not to make

C. not making                      D. do not make

陷阱:容易误选C,受题干中的逗号的影响,认为是现在分词表结果的用法。

分析:其实答案应选B,句中的逗号相当于连词 and 或 but,not to make it more difficult 是对逗号前的不定式 to make life easier 的补充说明。此句的意思是"新技术的目的是为了使生活变得更容易,而不是使生活变得更困难"。两个不定式同时用以说明句子主语 purpose 的内容。请做以下类似试题(答案选B):

The purpose of the scheme is not to help the employers but _____ work for young people. 

A. provide                           B. to provide

C. providing                         D. provided

5. The murderer was brought in, with his hands ______ behind his back.

A. to be tied                      B. being tied

C. tied                              D. having tied

陷阱:容易误选B。

分析:最佳答案为C。从意义上看,hands 与 tie 的关系应属被动关系,故排除D。在A、B、C三个选项中,选项A比较容易排除,因为不定式表示将来意义,在此与语境不符。现将B和C作一比较:B为现在分词的被动式,它表示两层意义,一是表被动,二是表进行,也就是说 his hands being tied 的实际意思是"他的手正在被捆住",这显然与语境不符。而C为过去分词,它也表示两层意义,一是表被动,二是表示动词的完成或完成后的状态,此句中的 with his hands tied behind his back 可视为手被捆在背后的一种状态。由此可知最佳答案为C。请看下面一题:

Anyone ______ trying to take knives on heard flights would be caught by the police. 

A. finds                               B. found

C. being found                     D. will find

答案选B而不选C,其中的过去分词表示被动和完成。

比较下面两题,最佳答案是D不是A,现在分词的被动式表示被动和进行:

(1) The court hears about 120 cases a year; visitors are welcome to see a case ______.

A. argued                            B. to be argued

C. to be arguing                   D. being argued

(2) The silence of the library was sometimes broken by an occasional cough or by the sound of pages _______.

A. turned                             B. having turned

C. to be turned                     D. being turned

6. Remind me _______ the medicine tomorrow. 

A. of taking                         B. taking

C. to take                            D. take

陷阱:容易误选A。受 remind sb of (doing) sth 这一常用结构的影响。

分析:最佳答案为C。比较以下三个结构:

remind sb of  sth = 使某人想起某事

remind sb of doing sth = 提醒某人做过某事(暗示动作已发生)

remind sb to do sth = 提醒某人去做某事(暗示动作尚未发生)

请看两个例句:

I reminded him of his promise. 我提醒他做过的诺言。 

My wife reminded me of seeing that film. 我妻子提醒我曾经看过那部电影。

Can you remind me to phone her tomorrow? 你明天能否提醒我给她打电话?

7. Once your business becomes international, _____ constantly will be part of your life.

A. you fly                            B. your flight

C. flight                               D. flying

陷阱:几个干扰项均有可能误选。

分析: 最佳答案为D。由于空格后出现了constantly这一副词,这就说明不能选B或C,因为B、C均为名词,不能受副词 constantly 的修饰。A和D均是可能的,因为其中有动词 fly。但若选A,you fly 是一个主谓结构,与其后的谓语 will be 相冲突,所以只能选D,即动名词flying在此用作主语。

8. Not only should you get used ______ under difficult conditions but you also you pay more attention ______ your work well. 

A. to work, to do                 B. to working, to doing

C. to work, to doing       D. to working, to do

陷阱:容易误选A,认为两个空白处均应填不定式。

分析: 正确答案为B,因为 get used to与pay attention to 这两个结构中的to均为介词,不是不定式符号,故后接动词时要用动名词,不能动词原形。类似地,以下各结构中的 to 也是介词,不是不定式符号,后接动词时也应用动名词,而不是动词原形:

look forward to doing sth 盼望做某事

be opposed to doing sth 反对做某事

object to doing sth反对做某事

stick to doing sth 坚持做某事

get down to doing sth 开始做某事

take to doing sth 喜欢上做某事

admit to doing 承认做了某事

pay attention to doing sth 注意做某事

devote one's time to doing sth 把某人的时间用于(奉献于)做某事

be equal to doing sth 等于做某事,能胜任做某事

What do you say to doing sth 你认为做某事怎么样

9. Both of my parents insisted _______ a computer for me, but I don't think it is necessary.

A. to buy                          B. buying

C. on buying                     D. in buying

陷阱:容易误选B,误认为insist后不能接不定式,但可以接动名词。

分析:答案应选C。其实,动词 insist 后既不能接不定式也不能接动名词,因为insist 通常用作不及物动词;若语义上需接宾语,要借助介词 on或upon,即用于 insist on  (doing) sth;但它有时的确也可用作及物动词,不过其宾语通常只能是 that 从句,而不能是普通的名词、代词或动名词。如:

He insisted on seeing her home. 他坚持送她回家。

I insisted that he (should) stay. 我坚持要他留下。

10. "Do you have anything more ______, sir?" "No. You can have a rest or do something else."

A. typing                             B. to be typed

C. typed                              D. to type

陷阱:容易误选D,根据 have sth to do 这一常用结构推出。

分析:最佳答案是B。确实,在"have+宾语+不定式"结构中,用作定语的不定式通常用主动式表示被动含义,如 I have some clothes to wash等,即尽管其中的 some clothes 与其后的不定式 to wash 具有被动关系,但却习惯上用主动式表示被动意义。但值得指出的是,这类句型的主语与其后的不定式具有主动关系,如 I have some clothes to wash 中的 to wash 就是由该句主语 I 来完成的。而上面一题的情形有所不同,即其中的 to type 这一动作不是由句子主语 you来完成的,而是由说话者"我"来完成的。比较:

Are you going to Shanghai? Do you have anything to take to your son? 你要去上海吗?你有什么东西要带给你儿子吗?

I'm going to Shanghai next week. I have a lot of things to take with me. 下个星期我要去上海,我随身要带很多东西去。

11. She took her son, ran out of the house, _____ him in the car and drove quickly to the nearest doctor's office. 

A. put                              B. to put

C. putting                         D. having put

陷阱:容易误选B或C,误认为这考查非谓语动词的用法。

分析:正确答案选A。句中的took, ran, put, drove 为四并列的谓语动词,其时态应一致。类似地如(答案选A):

I got out of the taxi, _____ the fare and dashed into the station.

A. paid                             B. paying

C. to pay                          D. having paid

但是,下面一题稍有不同:

Hearing the news, he rushed out, ______ the book ______ on the table and disappeared into the distance. 

A. left; lain open                B. leaving; lying open

C. leaving; lie opened         D. left; lay opened

此题答案选B,leaving 在此表结果,lying open 与其前的动词leave有关,leave 后接现在分词作宾语补足语,表示使某人或某物处于做某事的状态中。

12. The boss insisted that every minute ______ made full use of ______ the work well.

A. be, to do                      B. was, doing

C. be, doing                      D. was, to do

陷阱:容易误选B。

分析:其实正确答案是A。分析如下:

(1) 第一空填 be,是因为insisted 后接that从句,从句谓语要用"should+动词原形"这样的虚拟语气,其中的should也可省略。

(2) 第二空要填to do,是因为此句谓语为被动语态,假若将此句转换成主动语态,则是 …should make full use of every minute to do the work well, 句中涉及 make use of … to do sth (利用……做某事)这一结构。另外,还有 make the most of (尽量利用),make the best of (尽量利用)等短语也可能用于此类试题。请看以下类似例子:

(1) The old professor told us every part of the materials should be made use of ______ the power station.

A. to build                        B. building

C. build                            D. built

此题答案选 A,不是 B。为便于理解,可先考虑以下结构:

…make use of every part of the materials to build the power station

由此可见,make use of 的宾语是 every part of the materials,其后的不定式 to build the power station 为目的状语。

(2) Does the way you thought of _______ the water clean make any sense?

A. making                         B. to make

C. how to make                D. having made

 

【典型例题】

1. He looked around and caught a man ______ his hand into the pocket of a passenger. 

A. put                                B. to be putting

C. to put                             D. putting

2. When you're learning to drive, _______ a good teacher makes a big difference. 

A. have                              B. having

C. and have                        D. and having

3. I felt it a great honour ______ to speak to you.

A. to ask                            B. asking

C. to be asked                     D. having asked

4. I would love _______ to the party last night but I had to work extra hours to finish a report. 

A. to go                              B. to have gone

C. going                             D. having gone

5. Before you decide to leave your job, _______ the effect it will have on your family. 

A. consider                         B. considering

C. to consider                     D. considered

6. Robert is said _______ abroad, but I don't know what country he studied in.

A. to have studied                B. to study 

C. to be studying                 D. to have been studying

7. It is said that in Australia there is more land than the government knows _______. 

A. it what to do with            B. what to do it with

C. what to do with it            D. to do what with it

8. Anyone _______ bags, boxes, or whatever, was stopped by the police.

A. seen carry                      B. seen carrying

C. saw to carry                   D. saw carrying

9. Mr Reed made up his mind to devote all he had to _______ some schools for poor children.

A. set up                            B. setting up

C. have set up                     D. having set up

10. The discovery of new evidence led to _______. 

A. the thief having caught     B. catch the thief

C. the thief being caught      D. the thief to be caught

11. She looks forward every spring to _______ the flower-lined garden. 

A. visit                               B. paying a visit

C. walk in                           D. walking in

12. To test eggs, _______ them in a bowl of water: if they float they're bad, if they sink they're good. 

A. put                                B. putting

C. to put                             D. to be putting

13. "Where is David?" "He is upstairs ______ ready to go out."

A. to get                             B. getting

C. to be getting                   D. having got

14. "Mum, why do you always make me eat an egg every day?" "________ enough protein and nutrition as you are growing up."

A. Get                                B. Getting

C. To get                            D. to be getting

15. He was reading his book, completely _______ to the world. 

A. lost                                B. losing

C. to lose                            D. to have lost

16. We looked everywhere for the keys, but they are nowhere _______.

A. to find                            B. to have found

C. to be found                     D. being found

17. The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him _______.

A. not to                             B. not to do

C. not do it                         D. do not do

18. A cook will be immediately fired if he is found _______ in the kitchen. 

A. smoke                            B. smoking

C. to smoke                        D. smoked

19. Finding her car stolen, _______. 

A. a policeman was asked to help  

B. the area was searching thoroughly

C. it was looked for everywhere

D. she hurried to a policeman for help

20. "How do you deal with the disagreement between the company and the customers?" "The key ______ the problem is to meet the demand ______ by the customers."

A. to solving, making           B. to solving, made

C. to solve, making              D. to solve, made

21. "What do you think made Mary so upset?" "_______ her new bike."

A. As she lost                     B. Lost

C. Losing                           D. Because of losing

22. The research is so designed that once _______ nothing can be done to change it.

A. begins                            B. having begun

C. beginning                       D. begun

23. Though ________ money, his parents managed to send him to university. 

A. lacked                            B. lacking of

C. lacking                           D. lacked in

24. Tony was very unhappy for _______ to the party.

A. having not been invited    B. not having invited  

C. having not invited            D. not having been invited

25. Though I have often heard this song _______. I have never heard you _______ it.

A. being sung, sang             B. sang, singing

C. sung, sing                      D. to be sung, to sing

答案与解析:

1. 选D。catch sb doing sth 意为"碰上某人在做某事"或"逮住某人做某事"。

2. 选B。这是一个含when 引导时间状语从句的主从复合句,having a good teacher 在主句中用作主语。

3. 选C。句中的 it 为形式主语,不定式 to be asked to speak to you 为真正主语,因"我"与ask为被动关系,故用被动式。

4. 选 B。like 和 love后接不定式或动名词均可,但 would love / like 后只能接不定式,据此可排除选项 C、D。表示过去未曾实现的愿望,其后要接不定式完成式,即选 B。

5. 选A,before 引导的是时间状语从句,填空句为主句,而此主句为一祈使句,故动词用原形。其中 it will have … 为修饰名词 the effect 的宾语从句。

6. 选 A。根据句中的 studied 可知,他曾到国外留过学,也就是说"留学"这个动作已结束并发生在谓语动作(is said)之前,故用完成式,即选 A。

7. 选 C。do with 与 what 连用可以表示"处置"、"放置"、"利用"等。如:

What shall I do with it? 怎样处置它好呢? 

What have you done with my umbrella? 你把我的雨伞放到哪里去了?

I don't know what to do with this strange object. 我不知道这怪东西有什么用。

8. 选B。anyone seen carrying bags…为 anyone who was seen carrying bags 之略,其中过去分词短语 seen carrying bags … 用作定语修饰代词 anyone。另外,句中的 who was seen carrying bags 为 see sb doing sth 这一结构的被动式。

9. 选 B。devote…to… 的意思是"把……贡献给……"或"致力于……",其中 to 是介词,不是不定式符号,若后接动词要用动名词。句中的 he had 为定语从句,用以修饰 all,注意不将 had to 视为同一个语义结构。

10. 选 C。lead to 意为"导致",其中的 to 是介词,不是不定式符号,若后接动词要用

动名词。由于逻辑主语 the thief 与catch 为被动关系,故答案选 C。

11. 选 D。look forward to 意为"期盼",其中 to 是介词,后接动词要用动名词。注意不能选 B,因为 pay a visit 不能带 the flower-lined garden 作宾语,假若在 paying a visit 后加上介词 to,则可选 B。

12. 选A。句首的 to test eggs 为目的状语,填空句为祈使句谓语,故要用动词原形。

13. 选B。现在分词短语表伴随。

14. 选C。to get enough protein and nutrition 表目的。

15. 选A。(be) lost to sth 为习语,意为"不再受某事物的影响"、"将某事物置之度外"。

16. 选C。因keys 与 find 是被动关系。

17. 选 A。不定式的否定式总是将否定词 not 置于不定式符号 to 之前,而不能置于其后,同时结合 tell sb (not) to do sth 这一结构可排除选项 C、D。当不定式的动词是前面已出现过的相同的动词时,为避免重复,通常省略该不定式而只保留不定式符号 to。

18. 选 B。find 后可接现在分词(表示动作在进行)或过去分词(表被动关系)作宾语补足语,但是不接不定式。另外,由于he 与 smoke 是主动关系,故选 B。

19. 选 D。非谓语动词作状语时,其逻辑主语就是句子主语。比较四个选项,finding her car stolen 的逻辑主语显然是 she,而不是 a policeman, the area, it 等,故选 D。

20. 选 B。the key to… 意为"……的关键",其中的 to 是介词,不是不定式符号,若后接动词要用动名词。另一方面,名词 demand 与 make 是被动关系(make demands 提出要求),同时根据句中的 by the customers,可确定答案选 B。 

21. 选 C。答句是针对疑问词 what 的回答,而问句中的疑问词 what 在句中用作主语,所以答句也应是一个能用作主语的东西,比较四个选项,只有C合适。其完整回答形式为 Losing her new bike made Mary so upset. 比较,下面一题要填不定式,因为四个选项中只有 To choose a new chairman 能回答疑问词 why:

"Why was a special meeting called?" "______ a new chairman."

A. Choose                            B. Choosing

C. To choose                        D. Chosen

22. 选 D。由于 the research 与 begin 是被动关系,故用过去分词 begun。Once begun 可视为 once it is begun 之省略。

23. 选 C。由于 his parents 与 lack money(缺钱)是主动关系,故用现在分词,又因为lack 是及物动词,故后接宾语无需用介词,故选 C。

24. 选 D。非谓语动词的否定式要将否定词 not 放在整个非谓语动词之前,据此可排除 A、C。另外,由于 Tony 与 invite 是被动关系,故选 D。

25. C。第一空填 sung,因为 song 与 sing 是被动关系;第二空填 sing,因为 you 与 sing 是主动关系。 

【参考资料】

非谓语动词(一)

动词不定式、分词(现在分词,过去分词)和动名词统称为非谓语动词。现代英语将现在分词和动名词合为一大类叫作v + ing形式。这些动词的形式不能在句中单独作谓语用,因而没有语法主语。但可以有逻辑主语。由于没有语法主语,也就不受人称和数的限定,因为不是谓语,也就没有时态和语态,但这些词仍能表示动作和状态,所以仍有表示与其他动词相对时间关系的形式。由于与其它词有逻辑上的主谓关系,因此也有表示主、被动的形式,同时也有自己的宾语和状语,一起构成非谓语动词的短语(动词不定式短语,分词短语,动名词短语)。非谓语动词在英语语法中占有特殊且重要的位置。非谓语动词形式多样,应用广泛,且在句中起着很活跃的作用,也是语法项目中的重点和难点,学好非谓语动词,才能正确进行口语和书面的交流。

动词不定式、过去分词及v-ing形式在句中均不能作谓语用,所以叫做非谓语动词。

(一)动词不定式:

动词不定式由"to+ 动词原形"构成,如:to study, to play,动词不定式虽然不能作谓语动词用,但仍留着动词的特征,它可以带有所需要的宾语或状语而构成动词不定式短语,如:to study hard, to play table tennis。

1. 动词不定式的形式变化:动词不定式有下列时态和语态的形式变化。

语态式一般式完成式进行式完成进行式

主  动to buildto have builtto be buildingto have been building

被  动to be buildto have been build

2. 动词不定式的基本用法:动词不定式能起名词、形容词和副词的作用,可在句中作主语、表语、宾语补足语、定语和状语用,如:

(1)作主语:To help each other is good.(动词不定式作主语时,一般可用it作形式主语,而将作主语的动词不定式置于句末,如:It is good to help each other.

(2)作表语:My job is to drive them to the power station every day. 动词不定式在系动词be之后作表语,与表示将来时的be + 动词不定式结构有所区别,如:Our plan is to set up another middle school for the peasants' children.我们的计划是给农民子弟再成立一所中学。(句中的谓语动词为is,动词不定式to set up… 为表语,主语为plan,但plan并不是动词不定式的逻辑主语,即动词不定式 to set up所表示的动作不是主语plan产生的。)We are to set up another middle school for the peasants' children.我们将为农民的子弟再成立一所中学。(句中的are to set up整个结构为句中谓语,主语为we,同时也是动词不定式to set up所表示的动作的逻辑主语,即动词不定式to set up所表示的动作是由we产生的)。

(3)作宾语:① 作及物动词的宾语,如:She wishes to be a musician.;② 作某些形容词的宾语:可以有动词不定式为宾语的形容词一般有glad, sorry, afraid, pleased, determined, willing, eager, anxious, ready, sure等,如:I am determined to give up smoking.;③ 动词不定式一般不作介词的宾语,但动词不定式之前如有疑问词时,就可作介词的宾语,如:Can you give us some advice on what to do next? 

(4)作宾语补足语,如:Tell the children not to play on the street. 如果句中的谓语动词为see, hear, watch, notice, have, make, let等,作宾语补足语的动词不定式须将to省去,如:I saw a little girl run across the street.

(5)动词不定式在句中作宾语,如带有宾语补足语时,须先用it作形式宾语,而将该动词不定式后置,如:I don't think it right to do it that way. 

(6)作定语:动词不定式作定语时,须位于被其修饰的名词或代词之后,如:Is this the best way to help him? 和定语用的动词不定式如果是不及物动词,不定式后面就要用必要的介词,如:He is the man to depend on. 如果被不定式修饰的名词为place, time, way,不定式后面的介词,习惯上可以省去,如:The old man is looking for a quiet place to live.

(7)作状语:动词不定式可以作下列的状语:① 目的状语: Every morning he gets up very early to read English. 为了强调不定式表示目的的作用,可在不定式前加in order to或so as to(以便或为了),但应注意in order to位于句首或句中均可,而so as to不能位于句首,如:She reads China Daily every day in order to (so as to) improve her English. 将表示目的的不定式置于句首,也可强调目的的作用,如:To master a foreign language, one must work hard at it. ② 结果状语:They lived to see the liberation of their home town.他们活到亲眼见到了他们家乡的解放。③ too + 形容词或副词 + 动词不定式,表示"足能…"的结果,如:You are old enough to take care of yourself now.

3. 复合结构不定式:由for + 名词(或代词宾格)+ 动词不定式即构成复合结构的动词不定式。其中for本身无意义。for后面的名词或代词是不定式的逻辑主语,这种不定式在句中可作主语、表语、宾语、定语或状语,如:It is very important for us to get everything ready for the harvest. 当作表语用的形容词表示不定式的逻辑主语的性质或特征时,就用介词of而不用for引出不定式的逻辑主语,这些形容词一般有good, nice, kind, wise, silly, stupid, foolish, right, wrong, careless, impolite等,如:It is very kind of you to help him every day.

4. 疑问词 + 动词不定式:疑问代词和疑问副词后可加动词不定式构成不定式短语,在句中可作主语、表语或宾语,如:How to prevent them from swimming in this river is a problem.

5. 动词不定式的否定式:动词不定式的否定式是由not + 动词不定式构成,如:It's wrong of you not to attend the meeting.

6. 动词不定式的时态形式所表示的时间关系:(1)一般式:动词不定式一般式所表示的动作是和谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生,但在多数情况下,是在谓语动词所表示的动作之后发生,如:We decided to plant more trees this spring.(其后),They often watch us play table tennis.(同时);(2)完成式:动词不定式完成式所表示的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前,如:I am sorryto have kept you waiting.(3)进行式:动词不定式进行式所表示的动作正在进行中,而且与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生,如:She happened to be writing a letter in the room when I came in.

7. 动词不定式的被动语态用法:如果动词不定式的逻辑主语为这个不定式所表示的动作的承受者时,不定式一般就用被动语态形式,如:What is to be done next hasn't been decided yet.

 

【模拟试题】

1. - Can you ride a horse?                     - No, I never had the chance ____.

A. for learning it                     B. for learning how   

C. how to learn it                     D. to learn how

2. Paul said, "Give me a chair _____."

A. to sit             B. sit            C. sit on              D. to sit on

3. I ran too fast ______ where I was going.

A. to notice                           B. for me to notice     

C. to notice for me                     D. and notice

4. - Have you enjoyed your visit here?                  - Yes, I'll be very sorry______ .

A. for leaving                       B. of leaving   

C. to leave                         D. with leaving

5. - I'll help you whenever you need me.             - Good. I'd like _____me tomorrow.

A. you helping                            B. that you will help   

C. you to help                       D. that you help

6. - I didn't hear you come in last night.        - That's good. We tried_____ noisy.

A. not be                          B. not to be           

C. to be not                       D. to not be

7. Because of air pollution being greatly reduced, this city is still ______.

A. a good place which to be lived in           B. lived as a good place

C. a good place to live in                    D. living in as a good place

8. - Why was the official meeting called?             - ______ new officers.

A. Select                           B. Selecting          

C. To select                        D. For selecting

9. - Where did he go?                    - He went to another store ______. 

A. to buy pencils                     B. for buying pencils  

C. buy pencils                      D. buying pencils

10. - My baby has a heart trouble.         - Did the doctor find it difficult ______ ?

A. in treating                       B. treating            

C. for treating                      D. to treat

11. - Did the judge ask you many questions?         - Yes, and ______.

A. they were difficult to be answered    

B. to answer them was to be difficult

C. they were difficult to answer   

D. they had difficulty in answering

12. That beggar seems _____ anything yesterday.

A. not to have eaten                    B. not to eat          

C. didn't eat                        D. to not have eaten

13. The lost child desired nothing but _____ home.

A. go                             B. to go              

C. going         .                 D. went

14.That box is____.

A. too heavy for me to carry      B. too heavy for me to carry it

C. so heavy for me to carry       D. very heavy for me to carry

15. Would you be ______ to do me a favour, please?

A. so kind as        .                B. too kind           

C. as kind as                       D. enough kind

16. To learn to speak English well,_____.

A. much practice is needed                     B. one needs much practice

C. much practice is needed by one          D. one is needed much practice

17. Tom kept quiet about the accident ______ lose his job.

A. so not as to                      B. so as not to         

C. so as to not                      D. not so as to

18. Last summer I took a course on ______ .

A. how to make dresses        B. how dresses be made

C. how to be made dresses             D. how dresses to be made

19. The house is not large enough ____ .

A. to live in                         B. to be lived in       

C. to live                           D. for living

20. Nobody likes ______.

A. to speak ill of                       B. to be spoken ill of    

C. speaking ill of                     D. spoken ill of

21. I know him ______ a good football player while in college.

A. to have been                      B. to be             

C. was                            D. had been

22. I was surprised______.

A. watching him to eat so quickly             B. watch him eat so quickly

C. watching him eat so quickly               D. to watch him eat so quickly

23. Mr. White was seen ______ the Palace Museum.

A. enter                           B. to enter            

C. entered                         D. to entering

24. I saw Mary ____ the house.

A. open the door and go into                B. to open the door and to go into

C. open the door and to go into              D. open the door and went into

25. Paul does nothing but _____ all day long.

A. play                             B. to play            

C. playing                          D. played

26. Now we could not do anything but ______ for him here.

A. waited                                 B. waiting           

 C. to wait                        D. wait

27. I don't know her and I don't ______ .

A. want                           B. want to          

C. want it                                 D. to want

28. - Go to the theatre with me, will you?             

- I should like ______, but I don't have time.

A. to                             B. too               

C. to do                           D. to go to

29. To play fair is as important as ______.

A. to play well                      B. play well           

C. we play well                     D. playing well

30. It is the greatest happiness on earth ______.

A. loving and to be loved         B. to love and being loved

C. to love and to be loved        D. love and be loved

31. _____ is better to love than _____ .

A. That, to be loved                  B. That, be loved      

C. It, be loved                        D. It, to be loved

32. It's very foolish _____ it?                                               

A. for you to say                           B. of you to say       

C. with you saying                   D. in your saying

33. It ______ me two hours to find your new house.

A. cost                                   B. took              

C. spent                                  D. used

34. We did not expect our offer _____ so quickly. 

A. rejected                         B. to reject     .      

C. to be rejected                    D. rejecting

35. He told her ______ there at once.

A. get                            B. gets                

C. should get                       D. to get

36. We all think it most foolish ______ this mistake.

A. for you making                          B. of you to make     

C. you to make                     D. for you to make

37. I really don't know ____ .

A. to swim                             B. how to swim     

C. to swim how                     D. how swim

38. - What do you think about English?         - It's a difficult language _____

A. speaking                         B. to be spoken       

C. to speak                         D. spoken


【试题答案】

1~5 DDACC     6~10 BCCAD     11~15 CABAA     16~20 BBAAB  

21~25 ADBAA    26~30 DBAAC     31~35 DBBCD     36~38 BBC





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