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高中英语非谓语动词的命题设计常见模式与解题策略

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高中英语非谓语动词的命题设计常见模式与解题策略
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高中英语非谓语动词的命题设计常见模式与解题策略


【模式1】   名词 + 不定式(介词)(作定语)

【策略】1、把握不定式动词的性质,要不要介词;

2、把握不定式的逻辑主语,确定主、被动语态。

3、理论指导:当句子的主语为不定式的逻辑主语时用主动形式。

①I want something to eat. (I eat.)

②I want a room to live in.(I live in the room.)

③Tomorrow I will go to Beijing, do you have anything to be taken?

【模式2】不定式的省略(to)

【策略】1、无论肯定或否定,保留到to;

2、如果不定式为被动式或完成式,则保留到be/have.

        ①--Would you like to go with me?

          --I'd like to, but I have an important meeting to attend.

        ②Tommy liked to play football in the street, but his mother always told him not to.

        ③--I didn't tell her the bad news.  -Oh, you ought to have.

【模式3】只带to

【策略】1、部分动词的记忆(从不认识的单词开始,动词略);2、序数词 + 不定式

        ①He pretended not to see me when I said hi to him in the street.

        ②Lao Wang is a hard-working man. He is always the first to come and the last to leave.

【模式4】带不带to

【策略】1、从不带to入手,注意例外;

        2、理论指导:①使役动词(let, make, have等后省to;★get后带to);②感官动词(see, watch, notice, listen, hear, feel等后省to);③but (to) do/except (to) do(谓语部分含实意动词的do则省to;无则带to。);④why (not) do(wh-词后接不定式的特例)。说明:参考答案为斜体,下同。

        ①Sometimes our teachers ____ us to do much homework.(let/make/have/get)

        ②Today morning, I had nothing to do but (except)___(to sleep/sleep) all morning.

        ③In winter, some animals have no choice but (except) ___ (to hibernate/hibernate).

        ④Why not join us in the discussion?

        ⑤I often hear him sing this song.(He was often heard to sing this song.)

【模式5】表示动作的目的(to)

【策略】经过判断如表示动作目的,首先考虑使用不定式。

        ①We climbed to the top of tower ___ a better view of the area.

(getting/got/having got/to get)

②--Why was a special meeting was called?  -- ___.

  (To elect/Electing/Our electing/Elected)

③___ time and labor, cartoonists generally draw the hands of their characters with only 3 fingers and a thumb.(To save/Saved/Saving/Having saved)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  

【模式6】只带doing

【策略】1、部分动词的记忆(从不认识的单词开始,动词略);2、句型结构;3、比较使用不定式的结构(同时关注不定式逻辑主语的引入结构)。

        ★It is/was (no) + n. (use/good) + doing.(名词后接doing)

        ★It is/was not any + n. (use/good) + doing.(名词后接doing)

①     It is no use arguing with him.

②     It is no use regretting the spoiled milk.

★It is/was + adj. + to do sth…(形容词后接to do)

★It is/was + adj. + for/of sb. + to do sth.( 不定式逻辑主语的引入结构)

【模式7】动名词的复合结构(关注否定式)

【策略】1、动名词复合结构的全面掌握(原式和略式-句子成分);

        2、理论指导:动名词复合结构由"逻辑主语 + 动名词"构成。当此结构充当主语时,用原式即"名词所有格或形容词物主代词 + 动名词";作宾语或表语时用略式即"名词普通格或宾格代词 + 动名词"。动名词复合结构的否定式中的not在逻辑主语之后。

①     ___ the meeting himself gave them a great deal of encouragement.

(Tom will attend/Tom to attend/Tom attended/Tom's attending)

②     David apologized for ___ to inform me of the change in the plan.

(his not being able/his being not able/him not to be able/him to be not able)

③     Is there any possibility of the film ___ in Paris International Festival?

(trying out/tried out/to try out/being tried out)

【模式8】后接不定式与动名词之别

【策略】1、基本理论;2、特别句型(参见模式6);

3、理论指导:①双接,无含义差别;②双接,含义差别不大(长短期习惯);

③双接,含义不同(记忆特别的动词);④特别的动词有:

stop doing sth / stop to do sth     (停止做某事 / 停下来去做某事)

remember doing sth / remember to do sth  (记得做过某事 / 记住要去做某事)

mean doing sth / mean to do sth    (意味某事 / 打算做某事)

forget doing sth / forget to do sth   (忘记做过某事 / 忘记去做某事)

try doing sth / try to do sth   (试着做某事 / 尽力去做某事)

need doing sth / need to do sth   (某事需要被做 / 需要去做某事)

can't help doing sth / can't help to do sth (情不自禁做某事 / 不能帮忙做某事)

【模式9】主动表被动

【策略】1、基本理论和基本句型。

     2、理论指导:●英语中有些动词形式上是主动结构,但意义是被动的。如:wash, open, write, sell, let, blame等。

①       This kind of cloth washes easily.

②       The door opens easily.

③       The pen writes well.

④       The novel sells well.

●     be worth doing中的doing主动表示被动(比较be worthy of 结构)。

①       These books are worth reading.(只接动名词)

②       These books are worthy of being read/to be read.(既接动名词又接不定式)

●英语中有些动词,如want, need, require等后接动名词时主动表示被动,但接不定式时却用被动形式。

① The bike needs repairing/to be repaired.

② This plan requires discussing/to be discussed.

●     形容词后接的不定式作状语时主动表被动。

①     The articles written by Luxun are hard to read.

②     He is hard to get along with.

【模式10】独立分词(结构)/独立主格结构

【策略】1、从分析句子结构着手,注意主动(现在分词)和被动(过去分词),2、几点例外(例⑤⑥)。3、理论指导:当句子的主语与独立结构中的动词不形成逻辑上的主谓(主动)或动宾(被动)关系时,根据全句的含义加上自己的逻辑主语,此时形成独立主格结构;部分非谓语动词词组需单独使用,此时形成独立分词(结构)。

        ①___ a fine say, we decided to go out for a picnic.

           (Having/Being/What/It being)

③     The soldier rushed into the cave, his right hand ___ a gun and his face ___ with sweat. (held, covered/holding, covering/holding, covered/held, covering)

④     Time ___ (permitting/permitted), they will start to do a new job.

⑤     To tell (you) the truth/believe it or not/lost in thought/suppose…

⑥     Considering/Judging/Generally speaking/supposing…

【模式11】连词 + 分词(-ed)

【策略】1、定语从句和状语从句与分词结构的相互转换,状语从句中的连词可保留;

        2、分词多为-ed分词,如动词为不及物动词类则用-ing分词。

①     When ___ why he was late for the concert, the man made no answer.

     (asking/to ask/ask/asked)

②     The 18-storeyed building, when ___, will shut out the sun lighting the rooms.

     (completing/complete/completed/to complete)

③     It shames me to say it, but I told a lie when ___ at the meeting by the boss.

(questioned/questioning/having questioned/to be questioned)

④     If ___ ill, I'll stay at home ___ a good rest.

(falling, taking/to fall, taking/fall, to taking/falling, take)

【模式12】-ed 分词(be  + -ed  + prep.)

【策略】1.基本词组的记忆与略化(省略be后的结构);2.标志词by/as

        ①___ at failing in the exam, John felt unhappy.

(Disappointed/To be disappointed/Disappointing/Having disappointed )

        ②___ in a poor family, his parents couldn't afford to pay his schooling.

          (Born/Being born/Bearing/Having been born)

④___ by the beauty of nature, the girl from London decided not to go home.

 (Attracting/Attracted/To be attracted/Having attracted)

⑤Linda worked for the Minnesota Manufacturing and Mining Company, ___ as 3M. (knowing/known/being known /to be known)

【模式13】-ed.  与 -ing.

【策略】1、主动与被动;2、人(-ed)与物(-ing)。

        ①We all felt ___  (exciting/excited) at the ___ news. (exciting/excited)

        ②The baby was ___ (terrifying/terrified) by the ___ (terrifying/terrified) characters in the movie.  

        ③The ___  (puzzling/puzzled) expression on her face suggested that she was ___  (puzzling/puzzled) by the problem, as/which was ___ (puzzling/puzzled), after all, she was a top student in the class.

【模式14】伴随状况(-ed / adj.)

【策略】句子结构与省略。

        ①He went to bed _____. (drink/drank/drinking/drunk)

          =He went to bed and he was ____. (drink/drank/drinking/drunk)

        ②He came home at last, tired and hungry.

【模式15】找主句(主语多为人或非谓语动词的动作执行者)

【策略】句子结构的特点与分析(给出部分不为句子或是从句即有连词出现)。

        ① To be well fit for the job, ____.

A.      a good knowledge of physics is needed.

B.      one needs to have a good knowledge of physics.

C.      it is required to have a good knowledge of physics.

D.     a good knowledge of physics is important.

② With nothing left to burn,  ____(the fire became weak and finally died out.)

③ Tired of the noise, ___.(he shut the door/the door had been shut/he had shut the door/the door was shut)

④     ___ again and again but he didn't tell me the truth.(He was asked/Having been asked/Having asked him/Though he was asked)

【模式16】拆分句型结构或词组

【策略】1、什么是拆分,怎样拆分;2、拆分后的句式结构走向(定语从句或过去分词)。

①    What is the way Smith thought of ___ enough money to buy the new house?(getting/having got/being got/to get)

②    Great efforts should be made ___ up higher education to meet the needs of industry and agriculture.(speeding/to speed/speed/and speed)

③    Mr Green was disappointed to see the washing machine he had had ___ went wrong again. (repaired/to repair/repairing/it to be repaired)

④    Whom do you think the teacher ___ the composition?

(had written/had write/had to write/had wrote)

【模式17】区分及物动词与不及物动词(模式1/10)

【策略】1、动词识记的重要性;区分及物和不及物动词;2、系动词居多。

        ①___ good, the food was sold out soon.

(Tasting/Tasted/Being tasted/Having been tasted)

②The picture ___ on the wall is painted by my brother.

  (hanging/having hung/being hung/hangs)

⑦     The flowers ___ sweet in the garden attract the visitors to the beauty of nature.

(to smell/smelling/smelt/to be smelt)

【模式18】"据说"句型(said/believed/reported…)(简单句居多)

【策略】1、掌握复合句(that引导)和简单句(to引导)的基本结构;

        2、理论指导:复合句-It be + said/believed/reported…+ that-从句;简单句-变为不定式结构,当主从句时间一致时不定式用一般式,不一致时用完成式。

①     Zhang Hong is said ___ by heart 2000 words up to now.

(that she has learned/to have learned/to learn/having learned)

②     Li Ming is said ___ abroad. Do you know what country he studied in?

(to have studied/to study/to be studying/to have been studying)

③     The flu is believed ___ by viruses that like to reproduce in the cells inside the human nose and throat.(causing/being caused/to be caused/be have caused)



非谓语动词练习50题 (含解析)

从A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项。

1. When he was a boy, he used to go there and watch _____.

A. to repair bicycles

B. bicycles to be repaired

C. bicycles being repaired

D. repairing bicycles

2. - Have you considered _____ your job as a teacher?

  - Yes. I like the job because a teacher is often considered _____ a gardener.

A. to change; to be     B. to change; being

C. changing; being      D. changing; to be

3. The dog, _____, will be made a good watchdog.

A. to train properly    B. being trained properly

C. properly to train    D. trained properly

4. _____ the diamond, he had to look for a place to hide it.

A. Having stolen    B. Having been stolen  

C. Stolen      D. Stealing

5. _____ the front door _____, he had to enter the room through the back door.

A. Seen; painted B. Seeing; painted

C. Being seen; being painted   D. Seeing; being painted

6. And there, almost _____ in the big chair, sat her little brother, who never had to be told to keep quiet.

A. having lost    B. losing     C. to be lost     D. lost

7. He looked around and caught a man _____ his hand into the pocket of a passenger.

A. put   B. to be putting   C. to put   D. putting

8. To answer correctly is more important than _____.

A. that you finish quickly     B. finishing quickly

C. to finish quickly         D. finish quickly

9. The old farmer, _____ the badly injured and burnt soldier, came out of the burning farmhouse, calling continuously for help.

A. supporting      B. having supported

C. being supported by      D. being supported

10. In January , 2004, the United States successfully launched "Spirit", a Mars Exploration Rover, _____ a new milestone in the history of mankind.

A. it marked B. marking C. marked D. to mark

11. It was getting dark; I found a car _____ in a pool by the side of the road.

A. to be stuck     B. stuck     C. sticking     D. stick

12. You can't imagine what great trouble they have _____ the problem _____.

A. to solve; being talked about      B. solving; discussing

C. to solve; to talk about           D. solving; being discussed

13. The monument was built in honor of the explorer who was believed _____ the river.

A. to have discovered B. to have been discovered

C. to discover        D. having been discovered

14. The thief fell to the ground, his left foot _____ and blood _____ down from his mouth.

A. breaking; running     B. broken; running

C. breaking; run         D. broken; run

15. The program was so exciting that the children kept their eyes _____ on the screen.

A. to fix B. to be fixed C. fixed D. fixing

16. As I will be away for at least a year, I'd appreciate _____ from you now and then so that I can know how everyone is getting along.

A. having heard B. to hear C. hearing D. being heard

17. _____, the subject was always in my mind.

A. Walking or sleeping       B. Walking or slept

C. Having walked or slept    D. To walk and sleep

18. - Did you get a dictionary?

- No, I _____, but there were not any _____.

A. tried; to be left     B. had tried to; leaving

C. tried to; left        D. had tried; have left

19. When he came to, he found himself _____ on a chair, with his hands _____ back.

A. to sit; tying     B. sitting; tying

C. seating; tied     D. seated; tied

20. The joke told by Tom made us _____, so the teacher couldn't make himself _____.

A. to laugh; hearing      B. laughing; heard

C. laughing; hear         D. laughed; heard

21. All of the flowers now _____ here have developed from those once _____ in the forest.

A. raised; grown      B. rising; growing

C. raised; growing    D. rising; grown

22. Henry can't attend the party _____ at Tom's house at present because he is preparing the speech at the party _____ at Marie's house tomorrow.

A. held; being held    B. to be held; to be held

C. to be held; held    D. being held; to be held

23. Seeing the soldiers well _____ for the flood-fight, the general nodded with satisfaction.

A. prepare   B. preparing    C. prepared     D. having prepared

24. Don't worry. I'll have it _____ and get someone _____ it to you tomorrow.

A. typed; send    B. to type; to send

C. type; send     D. typed; to send

25. The sun was shining brightly, _____ everything there _____ more beautiful.

A. making; lookB. to make; looked

C. and made; lookingD. and making; be looked

26. How could he get the plan _____ without any one to support him?

A. to carry out   B. carry out

C. carrying out   D. carried out

27. New ideas sometimes have to wait for years before _____.

A. being fully accepting    B. fully accepting

C. having fully acceptedD. fully accepted

28. Having passed all the tests, she felt a great weight _____ off her mind.

A. taking    B. taken    C. take     D. to be taken

29. I'm examining the article he has just finished _____ the possible mistakes in it.

A. being corrected    B. to correct

C. corrected          D. having corrected

30. _____ full preparations, we decided to put off the meeting till next week.

A. We did not make     B. Having not made

C. We had not made     D. Not having made

31. We should prevent such a silly mistake _____ again.

A. occurring         B. to occur

C. to be occurred    D. from being occurred

32. I regret _____ hard at school, or I would have succeeded in passing the exam.

A. not to work    B. having not worked

C. to have not worked   D. not having worked

33. They looked forward with hope _____ a chance to receive further education.

A. for getting     B. of getting       C. to get    D. to getting

34. "Well, I'll tell you a secret ..." said the boy, with his mouth almost _____ my ear.

 A. touched B. touching C. touch D. to touch

35. Towards evening, the patient opened his mouth as if _____ something to his son.

A. said    B. say    C. to say    D. to have said

36. - Would you be _____ lend me your bicycle?

- Sure.

A. so kind as to B. kind enough as to

C. very kind to D. so kind to 

37. The beach is so beautiful that it is worthwhile, I think, _____ for a short holiday.

A. of going       B. to be going

C. your going     D. you to go

38. The teacher asked more _____ to prevent the students' eyes from being injured.

A. to do     B. done   C. to be done     D. being done

39. Some of the schools in Shanghai have moved one step closer to _____ with the global education community.

A. being connected     B. connect

C. having connected    D. be connected

40. The performance of the host, _____ to please the audience and draw their attention, was greeted with a cold silence, however.

A. had intended       B. intended

C. being intended     D. to intend

41. _____ and out of breath, we reached the top of the mountain and stopped _____ the beautiful scenery.

A. Tiring; to admire     B. Being tired; admiring

C. Tired; to admire      D. Tired; admiring

42. The 18-storeyed building, when _____, will shut out the sun _____ up the rooms in my house.

A. completed; lighted B. completing; lighting

C. completing; lightedD. completed; lighting

43. - I hear Warren _____ in a middle school.

- What? I can't imagine him _____ as a teacher.

A. teaches; working      B. teaches; work

C. teach; to work        D. teach; working

44. _____ he's only been learning English for a year, he speaks it very well.

A. Considered            B. Considering

C. Having considered     D. To consider

45. It was _____ computer games that cost the boy a lot of time that he ought to have spent on his lessons.

A. to have played      B. playing

C. played              D. having played

46. At no time does the salesgirl get up late in the morning, for she is always too busy _____ a good rest.

A. to take     B. taking     C. took     D. taken

. 47. _____ as the most excellent student in her university, as most classmates had expected, made her parents very happy.

A. Mary was chosen

B. Mary chosen

C. Mary being chosen

D. Mary's being chosen

48. _____ the big snake, the little girl stood under the tree _____ to death.

A. Seeing; frightened    B. Seeing; frightening

C. Seen; frighten        D. To see; frightening

49. You will see this product made in this factory _____ wherever you go. 

    A. to be advertised      B. advertised

    C. advertise             D. advertising

50. Mr. Green is said _____ an experiment to prove the new method of solving the problem when young.

A. to do            B. to have done  C. to be doing      D. to have been doing

答案及部分解析:

1-5 CDDAD 6-10 DDCAB 11-15 BDABC 16-20 CACDB 21-25 CDCDA

26-30 DDBBD 31-35 ADDBC 36-40 ACCAB 41-45 CDABB 46-50 ADABB

1. 用-ing形式一般式的被动语态作宾语补足语,强调自行车被修理的过程。

2. consider 作"考虑"解时,后常接-ing形式(短语)作宾语;作"认为" 解时,后常接含有名词、形容词或to be的复合结构。

3. 过去分词短语作条件状语,相当于if it is trained properly。watchdog看门狗。

4. 从动作发生的时间来看,应是先偷钻石,再找地方藏匿,故用-ing形式的完成式。

5. see 表示的动作与句子谓语动词(had to enter)所表示的动作几乎同时发生,且与其逻辑主语(he)为主动关系,故用一般式。由句意"看到前门正在被漆,……"可知,第二空应用being painted。

6. lost in the big chair为过去分词短语在句中作伴随状语。此句的正常语序为:Her little brother sat there...

7. catch sb. doing sth. (偶然或突然)发现或撞见某人正在做某事。

8. 题意为"正确做出答案要比快速完成更重要"。两个非谓语动词短语在形式上应保持一致。

9. -ing形式的一般式在句中作非限制性定语。

10. 题意为"2004年1月,美国成功地发射了"勇气"号火星探测器,标志着人类历史上一个新的里程碑"。

11. 由短语be stuck in(陷入)可知此处应用过去分词作宾语补足语。

12. 由have great trouble (in)doing sth.可知第一空应用solving; being discussed作定语修饰problem,表示"正在被讨论的问题"。

13. 用不定式的完成式表示动作发生在(定语)从句谓语动作之前。

14. 考查独立主格结构。foot和break之间是被动关系,blood和run是主动关系。

15. 由固定结构fix one's eyes on/upon...可知此处应用过去分词。

16. appreciate后常接-ing形式(短语)作宾语。

17. 题意为"无论是走路还是睡觉,我总是在想这个问题。"注意:此题中-ing形式短语的逻辑主语与句子的主语并不一致,有的语法家称其为"垂悬分词"。又如:Having suffered such heavy pollution already, it may now be too late to clean up the river. (NMET2001)

18. tried to后省去了get one。

19. 由seat的用法(be seated)可知第一空应用seated作宾语补足语;with his hands tied back为with的复合结构在句中作伴随状语。

22. 由at present可知第一空应用being held(表示正在被进行的动作);由tomorrow可知第二空应用to be held(表示即将被进行的动作)。

23. 由固定短语be (well) prepared for可知此处应用过去分词作宾补。

24. 此处为have sth. done结构和get sb. to do sth. 结构。

26. 考查get sth. done 结构。carry out执行。

27. before full accepted相当于before they are fully accepted。

28. feel后可接含有非谓语动词的复合结构。此处宾语与宾语补足语之间为被动关系,故用过去分词。题意为"所有考试都通过后,她感觉如释重负。"

29. 不定式短语在句中作目的状语。he has just finished 为定语从句。

30. -ing形式短语作原因状语。not要置于-ing形式之前。

31. prevent sb./sth. (from) doing sth.为固定搭配。occur为不及物动词。

32. regret doing sth.后悔做过某事;regret to do sth.遗憾(抱歉)地要做……。

33. look forward to doing sth.盼望做某事,注意with hope(满怀希望地)插入了短语look forward to中。

34. 考查with 的复合结构。his mouth与touch之间是主动关系。

35. "as if+不定式短语"在句中作方式状语。

37. 考查句型It is worthwhile to do sth./doing sth.。I think为插入语。

38. 由ask sb. to do sth.可知此处应用不定式。宾语与宾语补足语之间为被动关系,故用to be done。

39. close to中的to为介词。be connected with可理解为"与……接轨"。

40. intended to please the audience...相当于which had been intended to please the audience...。

41. tired and out of breath为"形容词和介词短语"在句中作状语。stop to do sth. 停下来去做另外一件事。

42. when completed=when it is completed;lighting up...在此相当于which lights up...。

43. 第一空应用一般现在时表示,意为"我听说沃伦在一所中学教书";imagine后常接-ing形式(短语)或-ing形式的复合结构作宾语。

44. 此处considering为连词,意为"考虑到";它还可用作介词,如:Considering the weather, he arrives very early考虑到天气,他算早的啦。

45. 此句是强调句型,强调句子的主语playing computer games。

46. 考查too...to...结构。注意:at no time(在什何时候都不)放在句首时,句子要用倒装语序。

47. -ing形式的复合结构作主语时,其逻辑主语常用名词所有格或形容词性的物主代词。as most classmates had expected为非限制性定语从句。

48. seeing the big snake在句中作时间状语;frightened to death在句中作伴随状语。

49. advertise意为"为……登广告"。made in this factory作定语修饰product; advertised作宾语补足语

50. 由when young可知此处应该用不定式的完成式。 





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