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高考英语语法精讲精练-强调句和倒装句

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高考英语语法精讲精练-强调句和倒装句
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高考英语二轮语法词汇复习系列  

第十四章 强调句和倒装句


倒装是一种语法手段。

在英语中,主语和谓语的语序通常是主语在前,谓语在后。但有时谓语的全部或一部分却提到主语的前面,这种语序叫做倒装。倒装的原因,一是语法结构的需要,一是为了强调。

强调句为了使句子的某一个成分受到强调,改变句子结构。

  高考重点要求:

1、掌握部分倒装,全部倒装的句型及倒装形式

2、掌握倒装句的都中使用方式


第一节知识点概述

 一、强调句

为了突出某一部分重要信息,常常借用语法中的变换句子的正常语序,将某个成分置于句首或句末,或者通过词汇手段突出句子的某个成分。

    1. it 为先行词的强调结构

It was Li Ping who told me the news. (强调人时才能用who)

It was in the park that I met him. (强调地点不能用where,只能用that)

It was yesterday that I saw him off at the airport. (强调时间不能用when,只能用that)

2. 助动词do 的强调作用

在行为动词作谓语的句子中,常用"助动词do或did" + 谓语"动词原形"表示强调语气。

例如:She did go to see him yesterday.

      We do have four lessons in the morning.

 二、倒装句

句子的排列顺序,通常是主语在前,谓语在后。倒装语序,谓语在前,主语在后。陈述句一般都是自然语序,一般疑问句都是倒装语序。

例如:He speaks English.(陈述句,自然语序)

      Does he speak English?(疑问句倒装语序)

倒装语序:

全部倒装,整个谓语放在主语之前。

部分倒装,谓语中需要强调的是一部分放在主语之前,其他部分仍放在主语之后。

倒装语序的作用,着重强调部分放在句首,引人注目。变化句子,使句子生动活泼。

例如:The bus comes home.(自然语序)

      Here comes the bus.(倒装语序)

倒装句除疑问句及"there + be "句之外,陈述句为了强调谓语或谓语某个部分也常可用倒装

句,另外so,neither,no等词经常用于对话简略答语的句首,用倒装语序避免重复。


第二节 实战演练

 一、复习时需注意的要点

1. 全部倒装的句型结构的主语必须是名词,如果主语是人称代词则不能完全倒装。

例如:Here he comes.    Away they went.

当so引出的句子用以对上文内容加以证实或肯定时,不可用倒装结构。意为"的确如此"。

例如:Tom asked me to go to play football and so I did.

-It's raining hard.  

-So it is.

2、only在句首要倒装的情况 

例如:Only in this way, can you learn English well.

Only after being asked three times did he come to the meeting.

如果句子为主从复合句,则主句倒装,从句不倒装

Only when he is seriously ill, does he ever stay in bed. 

3、在虚拟语气条件句中从句谓语动词有were, had, should等词,可将if 省略,把 were, had, should 移到主语之前,采取部分倒装。

例如:Were I you, I would try it again.

4、只有当Not only…but also连接两个分句时,才在第一个分句用倒装结构。如果置于句首的Not only…but also仅连接两个并列词语,不可用倒装结构。

例如:Not only you but also I am fond of music.


 二、历届高考试题分析

例1、The old couple have been married for 40 years and never once ________with each other.

A. they had quarrelled       B. they have quarrelled

C. have they quarrelled        D. had they quarreled

答案选C。

【解析】  考部分主谓倒装。否定句(如该句中的never)在句首时,应用部分主谓倒装。这类副词有:never ,hardly ,seldom ,scarcely,little等。这句话的意思是:那对老夫妇结婚已经四十年了,连一次架也没吵过。


例2、Never before ____ in greater need of modern public transport than it is today.

  A. has this city been B. this city has been

  C. was this cityD. this city was

答案:A

【解析】 表示否定含义的副词never 放句首用部分倒装。

例3、Only in this way_________ to make improvement in the operating system.

A. you can hope      B. you did hope      C. can you hope      D. did you hope 

答案为C。

【解析】  在含有only+状语的句子中,谓语动词要进行倒装。这句话的意思是:只有用这种方法,才能改善操作系统。


例4、I feel it is your husband who _______ for the spoiled child.

A. is to blame    B. is going to blame   C. is to be blamed    D. should blame

答案为A。

【解析】  be to blame是固定短语,意思是"该受责备"。这是一个强调句,强调主语your husband。这句话的意思是:我感觉惯坏孩子该怨你的丈夫。一些考生只注意到blame是及物动词,误选了is to be blamed,这表示将要发生的事,与语义不符。


例5、-You forgot your purse when you went out.

-Good heavens, _______.

A. so did I        B. so I did         C.I did so         D.I so did

答案为B。

【解析】  "so+正装句"的意思是"是的",表示同意别人所说的话。所提供的情境Good heaven说明自己确实在出门时忘了带钱包,所以回答说:"so I did."。so I did的意思是"我确实忘了带钱包。"注意区别so I did, so did I, I did so。例:①"He sang this song just now."-"So did I."(我也是)②The doctor told me to breathe deeply."I did so".(我照着医生的吩咐做了深呼吸)③"You forget to post the letter for me."-"So I did."(我的确忘了邮信了)。

例6、Not only ________interested in football but ________ beginning to show an interest in it.

A. the teacher himself is…all his students are

B. the teacher himself is…are all his students

C. is the teacher himself…are all his students

D. is the teacher himself…all his students are

答案为D。

【解析】  Not only… but…引导的句子前一部分要用倒装。这句话的意思是:不仅老师对足球感兴趣,学生们也开始对足球感兴趣了。  


例7、So difficult ________it to live in an English-speaking country that I determined to learn English well.

A. I have felt     B. have I felt       C. I did feel       D. did I feel

答案为D。

【解析】  以"so+形容词"开头的句子要倒装。此句变为不倒装句为:I felt it so difficult to live in an English country that I determined to learn English well.这句话的意思是:在一个说英语的国家里生活那么困难,我决定学习英语。


例8、_______can you expect to get a pay rise.

A. With hard work            B. Although work hard

C. Only with hard work       D. Now that he works hard

答案为C。 

【解析】  Only+介词短语(副词、状语从句)+部分倒装。 


例9、Only when the war was over ________to his hometown.

A. did the young soldier return

B. the young soldier returned

C. returned the young soldier

D. the young soldier did return 

答案为A。

【解析】  only+状语或状语从句作状语时主句要进行倒装。本句是only+时间状语从句,所以后接的主句要倒装。这句话的意思是:直到战争结束后,这个年轻的战士才得以返回故乡。  


例10、An awful accident ________, however, occur the other day.

A. does         B. did         C. has to         D. had to

答案为B。

【解析】  这是一个对谓语强调的句子。时间状语the other day表示过去,所以要用一般过去时。由于在主语和谓语中间插入了however,增加了试题的难度。注意:对谓语强调句子必须用于肯定句的一般时中,在谓语动词前加did, does或do。









第三节 巩固练习


Direction: Beneath each of the following sentences there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the best answer that completes the sentence.


1. Here       

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