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高考英语语法精讲精练-定语从句

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高考英语语法精讲精练-定语从句
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高考英语二轮语法词汇复习系列  

第十一章  定语从句


定语从句是在句中起形容词作用的句子,通常修饰它前面的名词或代词。

  高考重点要求:

1、限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句区别和结构特点。

2、关系代词who, which, that, whose,whom引导定语从句时的使用特点。

3、关系副词when, where, why 引导定语从句时的使用特点。

4、as引导定语从句的使用。


第一节知识点概述

定语从句在句中起定语作用,修饰某一名词或代词。定语从句所修饰的词叫先行词,定语从句放在先行词后面。引导定语从句的关系代词,指人的有who、whom、that、whose,指物的有which、that、whose。

定语从句分为两类:限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句。限制性定语从句是主句中的先行词不可缺少的定语,不可用逗号分开。非限制性定语从句只对主句中的先行词作附加说明,关系不密切,主句与从句之间用逗号分开,不能用that连接。例如:

I have a sister who works in a bank.

限制性定语从句(我有一个在银行工作的姐姐。)

I have a sister, who works in a bank.

非限制性定语从句(我有一个姐姐,在银行工作。)

关系代词whose在定语从句中作定语.例如:

Edison is a great inventor(whose)fame is world-wide.

关系代词that和which都可以指物,但先行词为不定代词以及先行词被序数词或最高级形容词修饰时用that。

引导定语从句的关系副词有when、where、why。例如:

The day (when)I helped the old man out was a very happy one for me.

The reason(why)the gamblers lose in the end is that they are dishonest.

关系副词的先行词总是表示时间、地点或理由的名词。

As引导的定语从句

(1)as用作关系代词和关系副词引导限制性定语从句,并在从句中作定语、表语或状语,构成the same…as,such…as等结构。例如:

  I like the same book as you do.

  I want to do it in the same way as you did.

(2)as引导非限制性定语从句.as在定语从句中作主语,表语或宾语,这个定语从句说明整个句子,它可以放在主句之前。例如:

  As is known to all, he is the best student in our class.


第二节 实战演练

 一、复习时需注意的要点

1、关系代词在从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词的人称和数必须和先行词保持一致.

2、关系代词whom, which, that 在限制性定语从句中作动词宾语或介词宾语,而该介词又位于从句末尾时,经常省略,但as一般不省略.

3、关系代词which在非限制性定语从句中不能放在句首,as既能在句首也能在句中.

4、that在定语从句中可以指人或物,在从句中作主语或谓语动词的宾语.但不能放在介词后面作介词宾语。

例如:The letter that I received was from my father.

5、先行词是不定代词:all, few, little, much, something, nothing, anything等,只能用that。

例如:That's all (that)I want to say.

6、先行词被序数词或形容词最高级所修饰,只能用that。

例如:This is the most exciting film (that) I have ever seen.

7、先行词被the only, the very, the same, the last 修饰时,只能用that。

例如:He is the only person that attended the meeting.

8、先行词表示地点时,有时用where,有时用that, which来引导定语从句.这时要根据从句的谓语动词是及物还是不及物,是及物的就用that(which),否则用 where。

例如:This is the factory where we worked last year.

This is the factory that (which)we visited.


 二、历届高考试题分析

例1、If a shop has chairs ____ women can park their men, women will spend more time in the shop.

A. that B. whichC. whenD. where

答案为D

【解析】  关系副词where 连接定语从句,其中where= in/ on which。


例2、We will be shown around the city: schools, museums, and some other places, ________ other visitors seldom go.

A. what         B. which         C. where         D. when

答案为C。

【解析】  这是一个定语从句,先行词是places,表示地点,非限定性定语从句中缺少状语,因此用where来引导定语从句,故要填where。这句话的意思是我们被带领着参观了这座城市的学校、博物馆和其他一些游人很少去的地方。  


例3、Alec asked the policeman _______ he worked to contact him whenever there was an accident.

A. with him         B. who         C. with whom         D. whom

答案为C。

【解析】  这是一个定语从句,the policeman是先行词。work是不及物动词,"work with sb."意为"与某人共事",所以定语从句应为with whom he worked。这句话的意思是无论何时发生事故时,Alec要求与他一起工作的警察与他联系。


例4、Is this the reason _______at the meeting for his carelessness in his work?

A. he explained    B. what he explained   

C. how he explained    D. why he explained

答案为A。

【解析】  the reason后接定语从句。因为先行词the reason作explained的宾语,用that或which引导定语从句在从句中作宾语时省略。这句话的意思是这就是他在会议上对他为什么在工作上粗心大意的理由所作的解释吗? 


例5、The film brought the hours back to me _____ I was taken good care of in that far-away village.

A. until         B. that         C. when         D. where

答案为C。

【解析】  when引导定语从句(the hours的定语),修饰先行词the hours,when在从句中作状语。这句话的意思是这部电影使我回忆起我在那偏远的村庄得到无微不至的照顾的时光。 


例6、Have you seen the film "Titanic", ________leading actor is world-famous?

A. its         B. it's         C. whose         D. which

答案选C。

【解析】  这是一个定语从句,因为先行词the film "Titanic"和leading actors是所属关系,所以要填写whose。  


例7、Recently I bought an ancient Chinese vase, ________ was very reasonable.

A. which price      B. the price of which      C. its price    D. the price of  whose

答案为B。

【解析】  这是一个非限制性定语从句。根据句意可知之中的是花瓶的价格。在定语从句中表示"谁的",可以这样表达,如:I live in the room whose windows face south(名词前没有冠词,用whose)=I live in the room the windows of which face south(如果名词前有冠词就用of which)。 


例8、Carol said the work would be done by October, ________personally I doubt very much.

A. it         B. that         C. when         D. which

答案选D。

【解析】  在这个非限制性定语从句中,关系代词which代替Carol所说的话。这句话的意思是"Carol说工作将在十月完成,我个人对此表示怀疑。"  


例9、It was an exciting moment for these football fans this year, _____ for the first time in years their team won World Cup.

A. that    B. while    C. which    D. when

答案为D。

【解析】  从从句的意思:"这是他们多年来第一次赢得世界杯,"可推知,从句是对表示时间的先行词加以说明,先行词是主句中表示时间的名词an exciting moment this year,而非整个句子,故选D。


例10、John said he'd been working in the office for an hour, _____ was true.

A. he    B. this    C. which    D. who

答案为C。

【解析】  该非限制性定语从句缺少主语,A、B两项不能用作关系代词,D项只能指代人,而该从句需要关系代词指代主句所说的事实用which。





第三节 巩固练习

Direction: Beneath each of the following sentences there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the best answer that completes the sentence.


1. The English play _____ my students acted at the New Year's party was a great success.

A. for which B. at which C. in which D. on which

2. _____ is often the case, we have worked out the p

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