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高中英语语法讲练-定语从句

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高中英语语法讲练-定语从句
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语法复习四:定语从句


(一)定语从句一般由关系代词和关系副词引导

1、关系代词:who, whom, whose, which, that, as

2、关系副词:when, where, why

关系代词和关系副词必须位于从句之首,主句先行词之后,起着连接先行词和从句的作用,    同时在从句中又充当句子成分。

e.g. She is the girl who sings best of all.(关系代词who在从句中作主语)

The comrade with whom I came knows French.(whom在从句中作介词with的宾语)

3、关系代词和关系副词的用法:1)当先行词为人时用who 作主语,whom作宾语;2)当先行词为物或整个句子时用which ,可作主语或宾语;3)先行词为人、物时用that ,可作主语或宾语;4)whose用作定语,可指人或物;5)关系副词when(指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语,where(指地点,在定语从句中作地点状语),why(指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语)。

(二)限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句

1、限制性定语从句:从句与主句关系密切,去掉从句,主句意义不完整,甚至不合逻辑。

e.g. I was the only person in our office who was invited.(去掉定语从句,意思就不完整)

2、非限制性定语从句:从句对先行词关系不密切,去掉定从句,意思仍然完整。形式上用逗号隔开,不能that用引导。

e.g. Tom's father, who is over sixty, still works hard day and night.(who引导非限制性定语从句,整个句子可分成两句来翻译)

(三)使用定语从句时特别注意的几个问题

1、that与which的区别。

1)用that而不用 which的情况:①先行词为不定代词all, anything, nothing, …;②先行词有最高级修饰,有序数词修饰;③先行词有only, very, any等词修饰;④先行词既有人又有物时。

e.g. There is nothing that can prevent him from doing it. 没有什么能阻止他不干那件事。

The first place that they visited in Guilin was Elephant Trunk Hill. 在桂林他们所参观的第一个地方是象鼻山。

This is the best film that I have ever seen. 这部电影是我看过的最好的一部。

Mr Smith is the only foreigner that he knows. 史密斯先生是他认识的唯一的外国人。

2)用which而不用 that的情况:①引导非限制性定语从句;②代表整个主句的意思;③介词 + 关系代词。

e.g. He had failed in the maths exam, which made his father very angry. 他数学考试没有及格,这使他的父亲很生气。

This is the room in which my father lived last year. 这是父亲去年居住过的房子。

3)as引导定语从句时的用法

①as引导限制性定语从句通常用于the same … as, such … as结构中。

e.g. I want the same shirt as my friend's. 我要一件跟我朋友一样的衬衫。

Such machines as are used in our workshop are made in China. 我们车间使用的这种机器是中国制造的。

②as引导非限制性定语从句既可放在主句之前,也可放在主句之后,用来修饰整个句子。通常用下列句型:as is known to all, as is said, as is reported, as is announced, as we all know, as I expect 等。

e.g. As I expected, he got the first place again in this mid-term examination. 正如我所预料的那样,他在这次期中考试中又获得了第一名。

3)as 引导非限制性定语从句时与which的区别

①当主句和从句语义一致时,用as;反之,用which来引导非限制性定语从句。

e.g. He made a long speech, as we expected.

He made a long speech, which was unexpected.

②当非限制定语从句为否定时,常用which引导。

e.g. Tom drinks a lot every day, which his wife doesn't like at all.

2. 关系代词在从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词单数还是用复数应由先行词决定。

e.g. The man who lives downstairs speaks English fluently. 住在楼下的那个人英语说得很流利。

The students who are in Grade Three are going to climb the hill tomorrow.

3. 定语从句有时不直接紧靠先行词,中间由一个定语、状语或谓语隔开。

e.g. There is an expression in his eyes that I can't understand.

4. 引导定语从句的关系副词有时可以用"介词 + which"来代替。

e.g. October 1, 1949 was the day on which ( = when ) the People's Republic of China was founded.

5. 当定语从句中谓语动词是带介词或副词的固定短语动词时,短语动词的各个固定部分不要拆开。

e.g. The sick man whom she is looking after is her father.

6. 介词在关系代词前,只能用which和whom,且不能省略;介词在句尾,关系代词可有which, that, whom, 口语中也可用who,且可省略。

e.g. The man (whom/ who/ that) you were talking about has come to school.


练习、定语从句


一、把下列每对句子合并成含有定语从句的主从复合句:

1. The fan is on the desk. You want it.


2. The man is in the next room. He brought our textbooks here yesterday.


3. The magazine is mine. He has taken it away.


4. The students will not pass the exam . They don't study hard.


5. The woman is our geography teacher. You saw her in the park.


6. The letter is from my sister. I received it yesterday.


7. The play was wonderful. We saw it last night.


8. The train was late. It was going to Nanning.


9. The boy is my brother. He was here a minute ago.


10. The tree is quite tall. He is climbing it.


11. Here is the girl. Her brother works in this shop.


12. That's the child. We were looking at his drawing just now.


13. This is the boy. His sister is a famous singer.


14. I want to talk to the boys. Their homework haven't been handed in.


15. Is that the woman? Her daughter is in my class.


16. He used to live in a big house. In front of it grew many banana trees.


17. They passed a factory. At the back of the factory there were rice fields.


18. The soldier ran to the building. On the top of it flew a flag.


19. In the evening they arrived at a hill. At the foot of the hill there was a temple.


20. She came into a big room. In the middle of it stood a large table.




二、根据句子意思,在第一个空白处填入介词,在第二个填入关系代词whom或which:

1. The person ________  ________ I spoke just now is the manager that I told you about.

2. The pencil ________  ________ he was writing broke.

3. Wu Dong, ________  ________ I went to the concert, enjoyed it very much.

4. The two things ________  ________ Marx was not sure were the grammar and some of the idioms of English.

5. Her bag, ________  ________ she put all her books, has not been found.

6. The stories about the Long March, ________  ________ this is one example, are well written.

三、选择填空:

1. The man ____ visited our school yesterday is from London.

A. whoB. whichC. whomD. when

2. The woman ____ is talking to my mother is a friend of hers.

A. whoseB. whoC. whomD. which

3. Because of my poor memory, all ____ you told me has been forgotten.

A. thatB. whichC. whatD. as

4. Do you remember those days ____ we spent along the seashore very happily?

A. whenB. where C. whichD. who

5. Tom did not take away the camera because it was just the same camera ____ he lost last week.

A. whichB. thatC. whomD. as

6. Those ____ want to go please sign their names here.

A. whomB. whichC. whoD. when

7. Where is the man ____ I met this morning?

A. whenB. whereC. whichD. who

8. Who is the woman ____ is sweeping the floor over there?

A. whoB. /C. thatD. when

9. The man ____ you talked just now is a worker.

A. whoB. whomC. to whomD. to who

10. The man ____ you are going to make friends is my father's neighbour.

A. with whomB. whenC. to whomD. which

11. The doctor ____ is leaving for Africa next month.

A. the nurse is talking to himB. whom the nurse is talking

C. the nurse is talking toD. who the nurse is talking

12. The man ____ around our school is from America.

A. which you showedB. you showed himC. you showedD. where you showed

13. He talked about a hero ____ no one had ever heard.

A. of whomB. from whomC. about thatD. who

14. In fact the Swede did not understand the three questions ____ were asked in French.

A. whereB. whoC. in whichD. which

15. Have you read the book ____ I lent to you?

A. thatB. whomC. whenD. whose

16. Finally, the thief handed over everything ____ he had stolen to the police.

A. that B. which C. whateverD. all

17. The foreign guests, ____ were government officials, were warmly welcomed at the airport.

A. most of themB. most of thatC. most of whomD. most of those

18. This is the very letter ____came last night.

A. whoB. whichC. thatD. as

19. I know only a little about this matter; you may ask ____ knows better than I.

A. whoeverB. whomeverC. anyoneD. the one

20. This is the school ____ we visited three days ago.

A. whereB. /C. whenD. what

21. This is the factory ____ we worked a year ago.

A. whereB. thatC. whichD. on which

22. Nearby were two canoes ____ they had come to the island.

A. whichB. in whichC. thatD. /

23. Jack is pleased with ____ you have given him and all ____ you have told him.

A. that, whatB. what, thatC. which, whatD. that, which

24. Do you work near the building ____ colour is yellow?

A. thatB. whichC. itsD. whose

25. In the dark street, there wasn't a single person ____ she could turn for help.

A. whomB. whoC. to whomD. form whom

26. Is this school ____ we visited three years ago?

A. the oneB. whichC. thatD. where

27. Is this the school ____ we visited three years ago?

A. the oneB. whereC. in whichD. /

28, How many students are there in your class ____ homes are in the country?

A. whoseB. who C. whomD. which

29. Alice received an invitation from her boss, ____ came as a surprise.

A. itB. whichC. thatD. he 

30. The train was crowded and I had to get into a carriage ____ already seven other people.

A. when there wereB. which there wereC. that there wereD. where there were

31. I live in the house ____ windows face south. 

A. whichB. whoseC. whereD. in that

32. ---- What game is popular with them?---- The ____ most is tennis.

A. game they like itB. game they likeC. best game they likeD. best game they like it

33. They stayed with me three weeks, ____ they drank all the wine I had.

A. whichB. which timeC. during which timeD. during which

34. The room ____ Mr White lives is not very large. 

A. thatB. whichC. whereD. when

35. Don't forget the day ____ you were received into the Youth League.

A. whenB. thatC. at whichD. where

36. I've finished writing the novel, ____ is to be published next month.

A. thatB. whatC. whichD. when

37. He returned home safe and sound after a fierce battle, ____ was unexpected.

A. whichB. asC. thatD. it

38. ____ we is known to all, English is not very difficult to learn.

A. WhatB. As C. ThatD. Which

39. The old man had three sons, all of ____ died during World War Ⅱ.

A. whoseB. thatC. whomD. who

40. I have bought two pens, ____ write well.

A. none of whichB. neither of whichC. both of whichD. all of which

41. Do you know the reason ____ she has changed her mind?

A. whyB. whichC. for thatD. of which

42. He failed in the exam, ____ proves that he wasn't working hard enough.

A. whichB. whatC. itD. that

43. During the week ____ he tried to collect materials for his article.

A. followingB. followedC. to followD. that followed

44. ____ was expected, he succeeded in the exam.

A. ItB. WhichC. AsD. That

45. He studied hard and later became a well-known writer, ____ his father expected.

A. that was whatB. what was thatC. and which wasD. which was what

46. We should read such books ____ will make us better and wiser.

A. whenB. asC. whoseD. what

47. You must show my wife the same respect ____ you show me.

A. whenB. asC. whoseD. what

48. He is absent ____ is often the case.

A. whatB. whichC. whoD. as

49. It is the first time ____ I have come to your city.

A. thatB. whichC. whatD. when

50. Who ____ has the same idea as it will do it in this way.

A. whoB. thatC. whomD. which

51. I shall never forget those years ____ I lived in the country with the farmers, ____ has a great effect on my life.

A. that, whichB. when, whichC. which, thatD. when, who

52. This is the only book ____ I can find.

A. thatB. whichC. itD. with which

53. I don't like ____ you speak to her.

A. the wayB. the way in thatC. the way whichD. the way of which

54. That is one of those books that ____ worth reading.

A. isB. areC. has D. have

55. This is the only one of the students whose handwriting ____ the best.

A. isB. areC. has D. have

56. There was ____ to prevent the accident.

A. something could doB. anything we could do

C. nothing we couldn't doD. nothing we could do


参考答案

语法复习四:定语从句

一、1. The fan that you want is on the desk.  2. The man who brought our textbooks here yesterday is in next room.  3. The magazine which he has taken away is mine.  4. The students who don't study hard will not pass the exam.  5. The woman you saw in the park is our geography teacher.  6. The letter I received yesterday is from my sister.  7. The play that we saw last night was wonderful.  8. The train which was going to Nanning was late.  9. The boy who was here a minute ago is my brother.  10. The tree he is climbing is quite tall.  11. Here is the girl whose brother works in this shop.  12. That's the child whose drawing we were looking at just now.  13. This is the boy whose sister is a favous singer.  14. I want to talk to the boy whose homework hasn't been handed in.  15. Is that the woman whose daughter is in my class?  16. He used to live in a big house, in front of which grew many banana trees.  17. They passed a factory, at the back of which there were rice fields.  18. The soldier ran to the building, on the top of which flew a flag.  19. In the evening they arrived at a hill, at the foot of which there was a temple.  20. She came into a big room, in the middle of which stood a large table.

二、1. to whom; 2. wiht which; 3. with whom; 4. about which; 5. in which; 6. of which

三、1~5 ABACD  6~10 CDCCA  11~15 CCADA  16~20 ACCAB  21~25 ABBDC  

26~30 ADABD  31~35 BBDCA  36~40 CABCC  41~45 AADCD  46~50 BBDAB  

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