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高中英语定语从句考点复习突破学案
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高中英语定语从句考点复习突破学案

定语从句知识总结与归纳

(一)结构  限定性定语从句:先行词+关系词+定语从句

非限定性定语从句:先行词,关系词+定语从句

 

(二)关系词  关系代词:that;who;which;whose

关系副词:when;where;why 

说明 先行词的内容指:人;关系代词用:that;who 

先行词指:物,用关系代词:which;whose表示:先行词和从句中的第一个词为从属关系,表示……的……;that;who;which在定语从句中做主语或宾语;

关系副词:when;where;why在定语从句中做时间,地点,原因状语;表示:"在那时";"在那里"和"为什么"

The bright star which is shining just above the roof is called Sirius.

The people who really helped civilization forward are often never mentioned in history book at all.

We saw a church among the trees, whose tower(the tower of which)was clear against the blue sky.

She adopted a child whose parents are dead.

He came at six, when I am usually in the garden.

Would you please give us a reason why you are late for class ?

关系词前面可以带有介词、限定词,结构为:

限定词(Both;Many;All等)of which / whom…

介词(in;on;at;for等)+which / whom …

He felt that his pupils, most of whom lived in the towns, should get to know the wonders of the countryside.

This is the road by which we came.

 

(三)先行词指"物"时,关系代词只能用that不能用which的情况,先行词的特点是:

1. 先行词有形容词最高级或序数词修饰

2. 先行词是不定代词

3. 先行词有only;any;few;little;no;none;all;very 等词修饰

4. 先行词既有"人"也有"物"

You should hand in all that you have.

The only thing that we can do is to wait patiently.

This is the last train that goes to Beijing.

(四)way 后面的定语从句:the way + in which / that /省略/+定语从句

I don't understand the way in which / that /-/ they worked out this problem.

 

(五)as 引导的定语从句,句型:

1. such +先行词as +定语从句:像……一样/之类的……

2. the same +先行词as +定语从句:和……一样的……

3. as +定语从句,主句:正如……一样

He is not the same as he was.

We have found such materials as are used in their factory.

As is expected, he has been absent.

She has read widely in Romantic literature, as appears from her essay.

 

(六)定语从句中的谓语动词与先行词的形式一致。

1. one of+名词复数+关系代词+复数动词

2. the only of +名词复数+关系代词+单数动词

The Great Wall is one of the world-famous buildings that draw lots of visitors.

The Great Wall is the only one of the buildings on the earth that is seen from the moon.

考试指导

(1)考查要点:关系代词/关系副词;考查形式--单项选择;短文改错。

(2)考查难点:在定语从句中加入插入语;把先行词与定语从句分割开。

(3)思路:单选--在理解句子意思的基础上,分清句子结构,弄清先行词和定语从句;观察从句中所有的成分--主语;宾语;状语(时间;地点;原因)

改错--常在定语从句部分的关系词处设错(关系代词/关系副词的误用;非限定性定语从句用that引导;从句中多余代词)。

同时注意根据句意和结构区分定语从句,名词从句和强调句型。

 

【典型例题】

一. 单项选择:

1. Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play ____, of course, made the others unhappy.

A. who           B. which        C. this            D. what

分析:B  去掉插入语of course,后面是定语从句修饰前文描述的整个事情。

2. The film brought the hours back to me ____ I was taken good care of in that faraway village.

A. until           B. that            C. when         D. where

分析:C  先行词the hours与定语从句被back to me隔开(为保持句子平衡);the hours在从句中做时间状语。

3. Was it in the village ____ we used to live in ____ the accident happened ?

A. where; that                      B. which; that               

C. that; where                      D. where; which

分析:B  ____ we used to live in是定语从句修饰the village;____ the accident happened是强调句型的其他部分;被强调部分是in the village;正常语序:The accident happened in the village which we used to live in.

4. The Beatles, ___ many of you are old enough to remember, came from Liverpool.

A. what          B. that            C. how           D. as

分析:D as many of you are old enough to remember引导非限定性定语从句:正如我们大家能记住的那样,A,C与定语从句无关,that不能引导非限定性定语从句。

5. We saw several natives towards our party, and one of them came up to us, ____we gave some bells and glasses.

A. to which                  B. to whom                  C. with which               D. with whom

分析:B 非限定性定语从句____we gave some bells and glasses修饰one of them,从句复原为we gave some bells and glasses to one of them.所以关系代词前加介词to,关系代词指人,用whom

6. Look out! Don't get close to the house ____ roof is under repair.

A. whose               B. which                      C. of which                  D. that

分析:A 先行词the house与从句中的roof为所属关系,the house's roof =the roof of the house; 所以用关系词whose引导,相当于:the roof of which引导的定语从句。

7. We are just trying to reach a point ___ both sides will sit down together and talk.

A. where               B. that                          C. when                       D. which

分析:A 我们试图找到双方能接受的条件,使他们一起坐下来谈判。Point指"点","点"在这里的定语从句里做地点状语。

 

二. 短文改错:

1. For example, when he bought a chocolate cake, he put it in a secret place where I couldn't find.

分析:先行词a secret place在定语从句中做宾语,where改成which / that.

2. Everybody sleeps in the tent, that is very exciting.

分析:that改为which 引导非限定性定语从句。

3. Most public libraries also have a reading-room, that you can sit at the desk and read the daily newspapers….

分析:先行词a reading-room在定语从句里做地点状语,用where引导。That改为where.

4. I'm sure you will find one you like it.

分析:去掉it.

5. As a result, sandstorms strike us now and then, from that we suffer a lot.

分析:介词后面的关系代词不能用that,改为which.

 

【模拟试题】

一. 单项选择:

1.       Recently I bought an ancient Chinese vase, ___ was very reasonable.

A. which price                     B. the price of which     

C. its price                    D. the price of whose

2. York, __ last year, is a nice old city.

A. that I visited             B. which I visited          

C. where I visited          D. in which I visited

3. Luckily, we brought a road map without ___ we would have lost our way.

A. it               B. that            C. this            D. which

4. Helen was much kinder to her youngest son than to the others, ____, of course, made the others envy him.

A. who           B. that            C. what          D. which

5. I have many friends, ____ some are businessmen .

A. of them             B. from which                     C. of who                     D. of whom

6. -Are you still busy?

- Yes, I __ my work, and it won't take long.

A. just finish                B. am just finishing

C. have just finished          D. am just going to finish

7. They ____ on the program for almost one week before I joined them, and now we ___it as no good results have come out so far.

A. had been working; are still working         

B. had worked; were still working

C. have been working; have worked                   

D. have worked; are still working

8. Susan decided not to work on the program at home because she didn't want her parents to know what she ___.

A. has done           B. had done                  C. was doing                D. is doing

9. I'm going to a pop concert with Tom. He'll _____ me at eight, so I must be ready then.

A. call for              B. call in                C. call on               D. call at

10. ____ unforgettable experience it is to travel on a camel in the desert.

A. What                B. What an            C. How                 D. How an

 

二. 完形填空:

The survey about childhood in the Third World shows that the struggle for survival is long and hard. But in the rich world, children can   1    from a different kind of povertymof the spirit.

  2   , one Western country alone now sees 14, 000 attempted suicides(自杀)every year by children under 15, and one child   3   five needs psychiatric(心理)advice.

There are many good things about   4   in the Third World. Take the close and constant relation between children and their parents, relatives and neighbours for example. In the West, the very nature of work puts distance between   5   and children. But in most Third World villages mother and father do not go miles away each day to work in offices.   6   , the child sees mother and father, relations and neighbours working   7   and often shares in that work.

A child   8   in this way learns his or her role through joining in the community's   9   :helping to dig or build, look after animals or babiesmrather than   10   playing with water and sand in kindergarten, keeping pets   11  playing with dolls.

These children may grow up with a less oppressive sense of space and time than the   12   children. Their sense of days and time has a lot to do with the change of seasons and positions of the sun or the moon in the sky. Children in the rich world,   13   , are provided with a watch as one of the   14   signs of growing up, so that they can   15   along with their parents about being late for school times, meal times, bed times, the times of TV shows...

Third World children do not usually   16   to stay indoors, still less in highrise apartments (公寓). Instead of dangerous roads, "keep off the grass" signs and "don't speak to strangers", there is often a sense of   17   to study and play. Parents can see their children outside rather than observe them   18    from ten floors up.

   19   , twelve million children under five still die every year through hunger and disease. But childhood in the Third World is not all  20  .

1. A. come                   B. learn                  C. suffer                  D. survive

2. A. As usual               B. For instance              C. In fact            D. In other words

3. A. by                     B. in                     C. to                     D. under

4. A. childhood                 B. poverty                C. spirit                   D. survival

5. A. adults                   B. fathers                C. neighbours               D. relatives

6. A. Anyhow                 B. However               C. Instead                  D. Still

7. A. away                   B. alone                  C. along                   D. nearby

8. A. growing up              B. living through           C. playing                  D. working

9. A. activity                  B. life                   C. study                   D. work

10. A. by                     B. from                   C. through                  D. with

11. A. and                     B. but                    C. or                     D. so

12. A. Eastern                 B. good                  C. poor                   D. Western

13. A. at any moment       B. at the same time        C. on the other hand   D. on the whole

14. A. easiest                  B. earliest                 C. happiest                        D. quickest

15. A. care                          B. fear                   C. hurry                   D. worry

16. A. dare                          B. expect                 C. have                   D. require

17. A. control                B. danger                      C. disappointment     D. freedom

18. A. anxiously               B. eagerly                 C. impatiently               D. proudly

19. A. Above all            B. In the end                 C. Of course          D. What's more

20. A. bad                    B. good                 C. rich                   D. poor

 

三. 阅读理解

"My kids really understand solar and earth-heat energy," says a school-grade teacher in Saugus, California. "Some of them are building solar collectors for their energy course." These young scientists are part of City Building Educational Program(CBEP), a particular program for kindergarten through twelfth grade that uses the stages of city planning to teach basic reading, writing and math skills, and more.

The children don't just plan any city. They map and analyze(分析)the housing, energy, and transportation requirements of their own district and foretell its needs in l00 years. With the aid of an architect(建筑师)who visits the classroom once a week, they invent new ways to meet these needs and built models of their creations. "Designing buildings of the future gives children a lot of freedom," says. the teacher who developed this program. "They are able to use their own rich imagination and inventions without fear of blame, because there are no wrong answers in a future context. In fact, as the class enters the final model-building stage of the program an elected 'official' and 'planning group' make all the design decisions for the model city, and the teacher steps back and becomes an adviser."

CBEP is a set of activities, games, and imitations that teach the basic steps necessary for problem-solving: observing, analyzing, working out possible answers, and judging them based on the children's own standards.

1. The Program is designed____.

A. to direct kids to build solar collectors        

B. to train young scientists for city planning

C. to develop children's problem-solving abilities

D. to help young architects know more about designing

2. An architect pays a weekly visit to the classroom _____.

A. to find out kids' creative ideas

B. to discuss with the teacher

C. to give children lectures

D. to help kids with their program

3. Who is the designer of the program?

A. An official.      B. An architect.           C. A teacher.           D. A scientist.

4. The children feel free in the program because?

A. they can design future buildings themselves

B. they have new ideas and rich imagination

C. they are given enough time to design models

D. they need not worry about making mistakes

 

四. 短文改错:

Friendship is important. Everyone need friendship. In all         1. __________

our lives we can't live without friendship just like we can't              2. __________

live without air and water. Friendship makes us get on                  3. __________

well with one another to go ahead under all kinds of difficulty          4. __________

in the front of us . But real friendship is not                               5. __________

easy come by .True friendship must be sincere and                     6.__________

be based on understand each other but not on benefits                      7. __________

of each other . A good friend can always be a good teacher                  8. __________

to us . By his advice we persuaded to go the right                          9. ___________

way . Therefore more friends we have, the better we                      10. __________

can improve ourselves.                    

【试题答案】

一. 单项选择:

1. B 解析:___ was very reasonable定语从句表示:The price of the Chinese ancient vase was very reasonable.

2. B  解析:先行词York在非限定性定语从句中做宾语。

3. D 解析:定语从句without ___ we would have lost our way修饰a road map,在介词后面用which引导。

4. D 解析:抛开插入语of course 后面是非限定性定语从句修饰前面说的事情。

5. D 解析:先行词many friends 在从句里做主语,表示:some of them are businessmen.介词后面由whom引导非限定性定语从句。

6. B  解析:根据it won't take long可知,工作还没做完,故排除C项现在完成时。B项使用现在进行时表将要。

7. A  解析:此题考查的是时态问题。从before引导的从句中的过去时态可知主句的时态应为过去完成时。故排除C、D。从意思上可以看出他们一直工作了一周。强调动作的连续,同时now也提示出后面应用现在进行时。

8. C  解析:整个句子是基于过去时态,A和D两项为现在时态显然不对,再由句意

"Susan决定不在家里……,因为她不想让父母知道她正在做什么"可知还没有做完,故C项正确,进行体有末完性、暂时性的特点。  

9. A 解析:call for sb. 接某人。

10. B 解析:多么难忘的经历,experience表示"经历",是可数名词。

 

二. 完型填空:

  本文着重阐述了发达国家和发展中国家孩子生存状况的优劣,从而指出发展中国家的孩子的生存状况相对于发达国家来说并不是一无是处。

1. C  解析:由前面struggle for可知。前面写第三世界国家的孩子遭受物质贫穷,而发达国家的孩子遭受的是精神贫乏。

2. B  解析:根据上文写发达国家的孩子精神状况较差,后面是一个具体的事实,所以应该用for instance(例如)。

3. B  解析:分数表示法one child in five(五分之一)相当于one child out of five。    

4. A  解析:后文用三个自然段具体描述发达国家和发展中国家的孩子的生活条件的不同,尤其是文章最后一句话总结了全文,所以暗示此空应该选childhood。

5. A  解析:由后文中第三世界国家的孩子与父母、亲戚和邻居的关系近,可知此处应选A最全面。

6. C  解析:与发达国家的孩子形成"对比"关系。

7. D  解析:与上文发达国家的孩子离家人远,形成对比,从而得出发展中国家的孩子离家人近。   

8. A  解析:用分词作定语,grow up成长;live through度过,经受住;而work和play与上下文明显不符。

9. D  解析:此处想表明"通过参与一些公共事物(如……)孩子可以获得角色认证。"下文列举的为可参与的工作并且上段中提及"shares in that work"得知D项最佳。

10. C  解析:由上一行的through可知。Through doing sth. rather than through doing sth .

11. C  解析:文中p1aying keeping和Playing三个动名词是选择关系,作through的宾语。 

12. D  解析:these指上文中的发展中国家的孩子,后文仍应该与"西方"发达国家的孩子相比较。    

13. C  解析:本题最大的干扰项为B。由于B项含有两层意义:(1)同时;一起。(2)然而;不过。容易造成误解。而on the other hand只含转折的意义,同时包含上下文的对比,故选C。

14. B  解析:与上文发展中国家的时间观念是通过观察的相对应,所以下面写西方国家的孩子长大的"最早"标志就是(父母给他们)提供了手表,这样一来,孩子和大人们就可以一块关注下面的一系列事件的时间。

15. D  解析:此句中school times/me times/bed times/the times of TV shows… 均为并列关系,作前面介词for的宾语。由于是being late for…所以只能是担心,而care about是"关心,在乎,介意"之意。

16. C  解析:not have to相当于needn't,再根据still less可知,不是"不敢","不希望",或"不要求",而应是"不必要"。    

17. D  解析:由文中可知,中间三段主要讲述发展中国家孩子的优点,而选项中只有freedom是褒义的。

18. A  解析:由于全文都是写发展中国家和发达国家孩子的生存状况,所以,发展中国家的孩子的父母可以在外面看着孩子而不像发达国家的父母在十几层的高楼上焦急地看着孩子在楼下玩。

19. C  解析:前面都写的是发展中国家孩子的好处,而下面写的是每年都有一千二百万5岁以下的发展中国家的孩子死于饥饿和疾病,所以上下文之间应该是一种转折关系。

above all首先;in the end最后;What's more更糟的是。

20. A  解析:这是一句总结全文的句子,虽然发展中国家的孩子有那么多的不利情况,但是也有某些优势,所以说第三世界的孩子生活"并不都"是坏的。

 

三. 阅读理解:

  本文以教学的口吻讲述了学生们参加的一个实践活动。通过一系列活动,提高了学生分析问题,解决问题的能力,同时让学生学到了最基本的读,写知识以及数学知识。

1. C  解析:细节题,文章的最后一段提到teach the basic steps necessary for problem-solving,由此可知这项活动的目的是为了发展学生解决问题的能力。

2. D  解析:细节题,文章第二段第三句提到with the aid of an architect who visits the classroom,once a week,"在一个每周来访一次的建筑师的帮助下",由此可知建筑帅来访的目的是帮助学生们,故选D

3. C  解析:细节题,从第二段第四句…says the teacher who developed this program可知选C

4. D  解析:细节题,文章第二段倒数第二句中提到because there are no wrong answers in a future context,"对于未来而言不会有事情是错误的,所以学生们可以自由驰骋想象,故选D。

四. 短文改错:

1. need→needs          2. like→as      3. and→or             4. under→through

5. 去掉the               6. easy后面加to                        7. understand→understanding

8. √                     9. we后面加are                   10. the 


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