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高中英语定语从句解题方法与技巧

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高中英语定语从句解题方法与技巧
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解答高中英语定语从句中的方法技巧

选择引导定语从句的引导词是学习定语从句的难点。巧用以下口决,可化难为易。一看指人还是物,二看介词在何处;三看句中作何用,四看否属特殊。

方法一:

"一看指人还是物"指人时用who(作主语)、whom(作宾语)和whose(作定语,既指人又指物);that既可指人又可指物,但在当代英语中多指物;which只能指物,that与which在句中作主语或宾语;在非正式文体中,作宾语的whom,which或that可省略。如:

In the beginning, people who bought them often got angry. (who指人,修饰先行词people,作从句的主语。)刚开始,买的人经常会生气。

They needed a plant which didn't need as much water as rice.(which指物,修饰先行词plant,作从句的主语,此处which可换为that。)

他们需要一种不像水稻那样需要大量水的作物。

I've bought a new dictionary whose cover is blue.(这里whose指物,在从句中作定语。)

我买了一本封皮是蓝色的字典。

难点:(1)whose既可指"某人的",也可指"某物的",指物时不可想当然误用which,但可使用"the+n.+of which"的表达方法,也可用"of which +n"的表达方式。

例句:①I've bought a new dictionary, the cover of which is blue.

②I've bouth a new dictionary of which the cover is blue.

(2)在非正式文体中,当引导词who位于从句句首时,可替换whom作宾语。如:Do you know the boy who/whom we talked to just now?

方法二:

"二看介词在何处"当介词置于从句之首时,若指人,介词之后只能用whom而不能用who或that;若指物,则只能用which而不能用that。试比较以下两组句子:

1Do you know the woman with whom I shook hands at the school gate?(此处介词with之后的whom不可替换为who或that,也不能省略。)

Do you know the woman whom I shook hands with at the school gate?(此句中的引导词whom作介词with的宾语,可换为who或that,也不能省略。)

难点:(1)当who, whom, which, that等引导词在从句中作宾语而省略时,从句中不能再加宾语。如:This is the pen she bought it yesterday.(此处的it应去悼,因为作宾语的which或that已省略。)

(2)两个以上的简单句组成一个句子时,必须用关联词来连接两个句子,而不能用代词。如:This is our monitor, without him, we couldn't win the game.(此句中的人称代词him必须改为引导词whom。)

Can you see the tall building, in front of it there a large play ground?(此句中的代词it 必须改为引导词which。)

方法三:

"三看句中作何用"如何选用定语从句中的引导词,关键是要看引导词在从句中作什么成分。若作主语,则在who, that或which之中选择;若作定语,则用whose;若作状语,则在when,where,why之中选择。试比较:

1.Have you ever been to the place which/that we visted last year

你去过我们去年参观的那个地方吗?

Have you ever been to the place where we worked last year?

你去过我们去年工作的那个地方吗?

以上第一句中的引导词which/that作及物动词visited的宾语,可省略,不可换用where;第二句中的引导词where作不及物动词worked的状语,不可换用which或that,但可用in which来替换。

2.Do you still remember the day which/that we spent together?

你还记得我们一起度过的那一天吗?

Do you still remember the day when we stayed together?

你还记得我们呆在一起的那一天吗?

以上第一句中的引导词which/that作及物动词spent的宾语,可省略,不可用when替换;而第二句的when作不及物动词stayed的状语,不可换用which或that,但可用on which来替换。

难点:要把握句子结构,正确分析句子成分,切不可见到表示时间的名词就用when,见到表示地点的句词变用where。

方法四:

"四看是否属特殊"定语从句引导词的使用还要注意一些特殊情况,如who 与that均可指人,which和that都可指物,但这些引导词在具体的语言环境中有区别,不能换用。如:

This is the first time that I've been to the museum, which I have been looking forward to for many years.

这是我第一次去博物馆,我盼了好多年了。

当先行词被序数词修饰时,引导词只用that而不能用which;在非限制性定语从句中,只能用which而不能用that,故此句中的that与which不能互换。

which is the book that you want to borrow?

你想借那一本书?

当先行词是which时,引导词用that.

另外一种常考的点是way和reason引导的定语从句。

如:I dislike the way in which/that/× he talks to his mother.

我不喜欢他和他母亲说话的方式

此句中way在定语从句中充当方式状语,引导词用in which that 或者省略


练习题

1.The film brought the hours back to me ______ I was taken good care of in that faraway village.

A.until       B.that    C.when     D.where

2._______is known to everybody, the moon travels around the earth once every month.

A.It         B.As       C.That      D.What

3.Aften living in Paris for fifty years he returned to the small town _______ he grew up as a child.

A.which     B.where    C.that       D.when

4.This is the hotel _______ last month.

A.which they stayed        B.at that they stayed 

C.where they stayed at     D.where they stayed

5.Do you known the year _______the Chinese Communist Party was founded?

A.which     B.that      C.when      D.on which

6.That is the day _______I'll never forget.

A.which     B.on which   C.in which   D.when 

7.I have bought two ballpens, ______writes well.

A.none of them              B.neither of them

C.neither of which           D.none of which 

8.Is _______some German friends visited last week?

A.this school                B.this the school

C.this school one            D.this school where

9.This is one of the best films______.

A.that have been shown this year 

B.that have shown 

C.that has been shown this year     

D.that you talked

10.Can you lend me the book _______the other day?

A.about which you talked       B.which you talked

C.about that you talked        D.that you talked


参考答案

1.C  2.B   3.B  4.D   5.C  6.A   7.C   8. B   9.A   10.A




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