试题下载

同步教学

备课中心

高考备考

语法词汇
高中英语定语从句基础知识精讲

【下载须知】

1. 本站提供的资料仅可用于学校课堂教学;
2. 本站提供的资料可能存在错误,请知晓;
3. 如侵权请联系站长:jxenglish2006#163.com

If download failed, please click here to refresh and try again
高中英语定语从句基础知识精讲
资料类型:    资料大小:84KB    资料来源:网络整理    上传时间:2020-07-08
资料预览
定语从句

一﹑概念

定语从句是指在句子中起定语作用、修饰句中名词或代词的从句,其中被修饰的名词或代词称为先行词。定语从句一般紧跟在它修饰的先行词之后,在先行词和定语从句之间起连接作用的词叫做关系词。关系词有关系代词和关系副词两种。定语从句就其与先行词的关系,可以分为限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句。限制性定语从句与先行词的关系十分密切,如果去掉该从句,主句意思就不能表达完整。通常情况下,朗读时中间没有停顿,从句和主句之间不用逗号分开。非限制性定语从句与先行词的关系很松散,去掉从句,主句意思仍然清楚,从句只是作附加说明。朗读时中间一般有停顿,从句和主句之间用逗号分开。如:

Yesterday I met one of my friends, who seemed to be very busy.

昨天我遇到了一位老朋友,他好像很忙。

They want to set up a country of their own, where they can be their own masters.

他们想建立自己的国家,在那儿他们可以当家作主。

这里我们先讨论限制性定语从句。

限制性定语从句使被修饰的词代表一个、一些或一类特定的人或事物,这种定语从句已和被修饰词构成了一个完整的意思,定语从句不能拿掉,否则剩下的主句就会失去意义,显得莫名其妙,不知所云而不能成立。

二、关系代词

(1)最常用的关系代词是who, whom, whose, that和which。关系代词同时起了两个作用。它们可以像别的代词一样,可以代表一个名词,在定语从句中用作主语或宾语,同时,它们又起到了连词的作用,把主句和从句连接起来。如:

1. What's the name of the girl who just came in?    刚才进来的那位姑娘叫什么名字?

2. Do you know the gentleman that spoke just now?   刚才发言的那位先生你认识吗?

3. The train which has just left is for Xi'an.刚开的那列火车是开往西安的。

4. He is a man whom we should learn from.    他是一个大家都应学习的人。

5. You can take anything that you like.    你可以拿任何你喜欢的东西。

【注】句1.2.3.中的关系代词who, that, which分别代表先行词girl, gentleman和train,同时引导了定语从句,在定语从句中做主语。句4.5.中关系代词whom和that分别代表先行词man和anything,同时引导了定语从句,在定语从句中作宾语。这些关系代词均起到了连词的作用,将主句和从句连接起来,构成了主从复合句。

【注】限制性定语从句起到对被修饰词的限制作用,如句1.去掉定语从句who just came in,则主句what's the name of the girl就可能使对方觉得不明所指,有了这个定语从句,就特指刚进来的那位姑娘,而不是任何一位别的姑娘。再如句4.去掉定语从句后,主句He's a man就显得毫无意义,有了定语从句,则限定了是我们应该学习的人,是一个具有模范性质的人,而不是别的性质的人。

(2)限制性定语从句,如果修饰人,一般用关系代词who, whom, whose或that。在定语从句中做主语的一般用who或that,作宾语的一般用whom, who或that,作定语并具有物主性质的用whose。如:

6. I don't like people who/that get angry easily.   我不喜欢容易发脾气的人。

7. A scientist is a person who/that invents or discovers things. 发明或发现事物的人叫科学家。

8. The students who/that had been watching started to applaud. 一直在一旁观看的学生开始鼓起掌来。

9. Here is the man (whom/ who/ that) you want to see.   这就是你想见的人。

10. I think one should stay faithful to the person to whom one is married.

= I think one should stay faithful to the person (who/ that) one is married to.

我觉得任何人应该忠诚于他所与之结婚的人。(上一句不能说…to who/ that…)

11. Do you know the woman to whom she was talking?

= Do you know the woman (who/ that) she was talking to?

和她谈话的那个女人你认识吗?(上一句不说…to who/that)

12. She's no longer the girl (that) she was five years ago.    她已不是五年前的她了。

13. This is the girl whose wallet was stolen yesterday.这就是昨天钱包被偷的女孩。

14. Is there anyone in your class whose home is the northeast?你班上有家在东北的人吗?

【注】在定语从句中作宾语(动词或介词宾语)的关系代词在口语中常省略不用。在书面语中,如果介词位于关系代词前面,则应用whom(不能省),而不能用who或that,如果介词位于后面,则也可用who或that,但省略的情况更多些,如句9.10.11.。

【注】当关系代词在定语从句中作表语时,也一般省去,如句12.。

【注】句13.中的whose的意思相当于her,但不能用her,因为her没有连词的功能。句14.中whose引导的定语从句修饰anyone,而不是修饰class,用whose而不用his是为了连接主从复合句。

(3)限制性定语从句如果修饰物,用关系代词that或which,作宾语时可以省去。作宾语时,如果介词位于关系代词之前,则用which(不能省去),而不用that,(关系代词that既能代人,又能代物)。如:

15. Don't buy potatoes that/which are green.    不要买青土豆。

16. The fish (that /which) they sell are not fresh.他们卖的鱼不新鲜。

17. The tool with which he is working is called a saw.

= The tool (that/ which) he is working with is called a saw.

他干活用的那个工具叫锯子。(不说… with that…)

18. What is the question about which they are talking?

= What is the question (that/ which) they are talking? 他们正在讨论的是什么问题?

19. Is there anything (that) I can do for you?有什么事(要我做)吗?

20. All that can be done has been done.    所有能做的事都已做了。

【注】当关系代词在定语从句中作宾语时,绝大多数情况下都是省略的,特别是在口语中。

【注】当先行词(即被修饰词)是不定代词时,关系代词用that,而不用which。

正如上面所分析:

who指人,在定语从句中一般做主语。

Do you know the man who is speaking to your father? 你认识和你爸爸讲话的那个人吗?

(定语从句修饰先行词the man,who在定语从句中作is speaking的主语)

This is the stranger who helped us yesterday. 这是昨天帮助我们的那个陌生人。

She is the girl who works hard at maths. 她就是那个努力学习数学的女孩。

whom指人,在定语从句中作宾语。在口语或非正式文体中,whom可以省略。

He is the man (whom) we just talked about.他就是我们刚才谈论的那个人。

The boy (whom) we met in the street yesterday is my classmate.

我们昨天在大街上遇到的那个男孩是我的同学。

whose既可以指人,也可以指物,在定语从句中作定语修饰它后面的名词。

This is the girl whose father is a policeman.这就是那个爸爸是警察的女孩。

They live in a house whose windows face south.他们住在一座窗子朝南的房子里。

which指物,在定语从句中做主语或宾语。作宾语时可以省略。

Physics is a subject which is very difficult to learn.  物理是一门很难学的科目。

(在定语从句中做主语,不能省略)

Apples are the fruit (which) she likes best.  苹果是她最喜欢的水果。

that既可以指人,也可以指物,在定语从句中做主语或宾语。指人时,相当于who或whom;指物时,相当于which。

He is the man that lives next door.  他就是住在隔壁的那个人。

She is the woman that we saw in the bookshop.她是我们在书店见到的那名妇女。

We like programs that are very interesting.我们喜欢有趣的节目。


Ⅰ、定语从句中宜用that,不宜用which的情况

在定语从句中,which和that在指代事物时,一般可以互换使用,但并非在任何情况下都是这样,这里介绍宜用that,而不宜用which的情况。

被修饰的先行词为不定代词,如all, much, something, everything, anything, nothing, none, the one等。如:

As we all know, all that can be done has been done.    正如我们大家所知,一切能做的事都做了。

"Is there anything (that) I can do for you?" he asked me.

We should do all that is useful to the people.我们应该做一切有益于人民的事。

There's nothing that can be said about it.有关这件事,已没什么可说的。

Do you mean the one that was bought yesterday?你指的是昨天买的那个吗?

先行词被only, any, few, little, no, all, just, very等词修饰时。如:

This is the only dictionary (that) the student has. 那位学生只有这一本辞典。

All the plans that will be discussed at the meeting are very important.

会上将要讨论的所有计划都是很重要的。

The only thing that we could do was to wait.我们惟一能做的事就是等待。

You can take any seat that is free.   任何空位子你都可以坐。

That's the very word that is wrongly used.  那正被用错的词。

先行词是序数词或被序数词修饰时。如:

He was the first that gave us some useful advice. 他是第一个给我们提出有用建议的人。

It is the first letter that I have written in French.这是我用法语写的第一封信。

When we talk about Wuxi, the first that comes into mind is Tai Lake.

当我们谈起无锡时,首先想到的就是太湖。

This is the third film that has been shown in our school this term.

这是我校本学期放映的第三部片子。

先行词是最高级或被最高级修饰时。

Do the best (that) you can do. 你要尽力而为。

This is the best that can be done now.这是现在能做的最好的办法。

The most important thing that should be done now is how to stop him from going on.

现在最重要的是如何阻止他继续下去。

先行词既有人又有物,用which和who都不合适,这时宜用that。

They talked about the things and people that they saw in that country.

The writer and his novel that you have just talked about is really well known.

你刚谈起的那位作家以及他的小说确实很著名。

The bike and its rider that had run over an old woman were held up by the police.

碰倒了一位老年妇女的那辆自行车连人一起被警察扣留了。

被修饰词为数词时。如:

Yesterday I caught two fish and put them in a basin of water. Now you can see the two that are still alive. 昨天我捉到了两条鱼,把它们放在一盆水里。你可以看到那两条鱼还活着呢。

如有两个从句,其中一个关系代词已用which,另一个关系代词则宜用that,以避免语言的单词或重复。

Do you know who is the man that said hello to us just now? 你知道刚才和我们打招呼的人是谁吗?

Edison built up a factory which produced things that had never been seen before.

爱迪生办了一家工厂,生产过去从未见到过的东西。

主句是There be结构,修饰其主语的定语从句宜用that作关系代词。

  They are no longer the men that they used to be.他们不再是从前那样的人了。

There's still a seat in the corner that is still free. 角落里仍有一个空位子。

被修饰成分为表语,或者关系代词本身是定语从句的表语时,该关系代词宜用that。

That's a good book that will help you a lot.这是本对你很有帮助的书。

My home village is no longer the place (that) it used to be. 我的故乡已不再是过去的那个面貌了。

that可用作关系副词代替when 

that有时可用来代替when,引导一个定语从句,修饰表示时间的名词如day, time, moment等。如:

I arrived here the day (when/ that) he left.我是在他离开的那天到这儿的。

October 1, 1949 was the day when/that the People's Republic of China was founded.

 1949年10月1日是中华人民共和国成立的日子。

He worked hard the whole time (when/that) he lived here.   他住在这里的整个时间工作都很努力。

He hurried into the airport the moment (when/that) the plane was about to take off. 

飞机正要起飞的时候他赶到了飞机场。

He went hunting in the mountains most of the time (when/that) he had his holidays here.

他在这儿度假的大部分时间是在山区打猎。

Ⅱ、定语从句中宜用which而不宜用that的情况:

这里我们讨论一下定语从句中宜用which,而不宜用that指代物的情况。

当关系代词前面有介词时。

 A zoo is a park in which many kinds of animals are kept for exhibition.

动物园是展览各种动物的公园。

Is this the room in which Mr. White lives?    这就是White先生住的房间吗?

在非限制性定语从句中。

Crusoe's dog, which was now very old, became ill and died.  克鲁索的狗,现在已经很老,病死了。

More and more people are beginning to learn English, which is becoming very popular in our country.越来越多的人开始学英语,这种情况我们国家相当普遍。

在一个句子中有两个定语从句,其中一个定语从句的关系代词用了that,另一个宜用which。

Let me show you the novel that I borrowed from the library which was newly open to us.

我来给你看我从新开放的图书馆里借的一本小说。

At the station I bought some magazines that might help me to pass the time on the train and which I could pass on to others when I finished them.我在车站买了几本杂志,这些杂志有助于我在    

车上消磨时间,而且,我看完之后,还可以给别人看。

当关系代词后面带有插入语时。

Here is the English grammar which, as have told you, will help improve your English.

这就是我跟你说过的会有助于你学好英语的那本英语语法书。

Ⅲ、定语从句中宜用who而不宜用that的情况

先行词为one, ones, anyone或those时。

The person I want to learn from is one who studies hard and works well.

我要学习的那位同志是位学习勤奋、工作出色的同志。

Anyone who failed to come to the meeting yesterday must give his reason.

凡是昨天没来开会的人必须陈述理由。

Those who are not fit for their work should leave office at once.不称职的人应该马上辞职。

I don't like the ones (= those) who talk big.    我不喜欢那些说大话的人。

在There be结构中,修饰主语的定语从句宜用关系代词who指代人。

There's a gentleman who wants to see you.有位先生想要见你。

There are several students in our class who are still not sure about the use of attributive clauses. 我们班上还有好多学生对定语从句的用法仍没有把握。

当先行词有较长的后置定语时。

 I met a foreigner in the park yesterday afternoon who could speak Chinese very well.

昨天下午我在公园里遇到一位汉语说得很好的外国人。

一个句子中带有两个定语从句,其中一个定语从句的关系代词是that,另一个则宜用who,以免重复。

 The student that was praised at yesterday's meeting is the monitor who is very modest and works very hard. 昨天在会上受到表扬的学生是位谦虚好学的班长。

Ⅳ、"one of the+复数名词"后的定语从句中谓语单复数情况:

1)one of the + 复数名词这一结构后面的定语从句中的谓语动词通常用复数形式,跟定语从句所靠近的那个复数名词在数上保持一致。如:

That is one of the books that are required for study at school. 那是学校里要求学生学习的书籍之一。

This is one of the most wonderful novels that have been published since 1990.

这是自1990年以来出版的最精彩的小说之一。

She is one of the few persons who know Spanish. 她是懂得西班牙语的少数几个人中的一位。

This is one of the most famous plays that were written in the thirties.

这是30年代写的最著名的剧本之一。

2)如果one of the + 复数名词这一结构前面带有定冠词或the only之类的限定语,后面定语从句中的谓语动词则要用单数形式,这是因为定语从句在意义上修饰的是the one或the only one,而不是那个复数名词。如:

He is the one of the teachers who knows French in our school.  

他是我校教师中惟一懂法语的人。(修饰the one)

试比较:He is one of the teachers who know French in our school.

他是我校懂法语的教师之一。(修饰the teachers)

This is the only one of the rooms that is free now.

这是这些房间中惟一没人住的一间。(修饰the only one)

试比较:This is one of the rooms that are free now.   这是目前没人住的房间之一。(修饰rooms)


三、关系副词 

when、where、why引导定语从句时,既起连接作用,又在定语从句中充当状语。

When指时间,在定语从句中充当时间状语。如:

1. I still remember the day when I first came to Dalian.我仍然记得第一次来大连那天的情景。

2. He told me the date when he joined the party.他告诉了我他入党的时间。

3. They stayed with me for three weeks when they drank all the wine I had.

他们和我一起住了三个星期,在那三周里,把我所有的葡萄酒都喝光了。

where指地点、在定语从句中充当地点状语。如:

4. This is the house where we lived when we were young.  这就是我们小时候住的房子。

5. This is the village where I grew up.   这就是我长大的那个村庄。

6. Hangzhou is a city where there is a beautiful lake.   杭州是个有一个美丽的湖泊的城市。

Why指原因,在定语从句中充当原因状语。如:

7. I know the reason why he was late for the meeting.    我知道他开会迟到的原因。

8. Do you know the reason why he refused the invitation?   你知道他拒绝应邀的原因吗?

9. That is the reason why I've changed so much.    那就是我变化这么快的原因。

【注】如果先行词是表示时间或地点的名词,不能就一律断定要用关系副词when或where,务必要看引导词在从句中作什么成分,如果作状语,用关系副词,如做主语或宾语要用关系代词。如:

10. I'll never forget the time when we worked together.  我将永远不会忘记我们一起工作的时光。 (work是不及物动词,when在定语从句中作状语,故用关系副词。)

11. I'll never forget the time (which/that) we spent together.  我将永远不会忘记我们一起渡过的时光。 

(spend是及物动词,which/that在定语从句中作宾语,故用关系代词,也可以省略。)

12. This is the factory where he worked before.    这是他以前工作过的工厂。

   (work是不及物动词,where在定语从句中作状语。)

13. This is the factory which/that he visited before.  这是他以前参观过的工厂。  

(visit是及物动词,which/that在从句中作宾语,亦可省略。)

【注】同理,当reason做先行词时,也需注意其引导词在从句中作什么成分,不能断定一概用why来引导。如:

14. The reason why I was absent yesterday was that I was ill.    我昨天缺席的原因是我生病了。

(定语从句中缺状语,表示原因,故用关系副词why)

15. The reason that he explained for his being late was that he had missed the early bus.

他所解释的迟到的原因是他误了头班汽车。  (explain是及物动词,that在从句中作其宾语)

四、介词+关系代词

关系副词可转化为介词+关系代词,即介词+which,因此上述例句可作如下转换:

句1.中when=on which

句2.中when=on which

句3.中when=during which (time)

句4.5.6.中where=in which

先行词是人时,用介词+whom,先行词是物时,用介词+which。如:

They arrived at a farm house in front of which sat a small boy.

他们来到一所农舍,农舍前面坐着一个小男孩。

That is the writer with whom I talked just now.那就是刚才和我谈话的作家。

介词的选择

1)根据动词、形容词的固定搭配确定。

The pencil-box on which I spent 10 yuan is lost.   我花10元钱买的文具盒丢了。

(on which是根据spend…on…的搭配)。

The two things of which Marx was not sure were grammar and some of the idioms.

马克思不太有把握的两项内容是语法和一些习惯用语。

(of which是根据be sure of的搭配)。

2)根据意思表达确定。

The gas with which doctors can save the patients is called oxygen. 医生用来救护病人的气体叫氧气。

The gas without which we could not live is called oxygen.   没有它我们就不能生存的气体叫氧气。

介词的位置与关系代词

1)介词后的关系代词只能是which或whom,不能用that, which或whom不能被省略。介词用于句尾时,关系代词用which、that、who或whom都行,而且还可能省略。如:This is the drawer in which I put my papers.

=This is the drawer (which/that) I put my papers in.   这就是我放文件的抽屉。

Is he the boy to whom you talked after school?

Is he the boy (whom/whom/that) you talked to after school?他就是放学后你与之谈话的男孩吗?

2)当定语从句中的谓语动词是带介词或副词的固定短语动词时,不可把短语动词的各个部分拆开,也就是说不能将介词提前。如:

These are the children whom you need to look after.那些就是你必须照看的孩子。

The post office which you are looking for is at the other end of the street.

你在寻找的邮局在大街的另一端。

五﹑在带有插入语的定语从句中who和whom的选用:

关系代词who/whom引导定语从句时,担任主语成分时用主格who,担任宾语成分用宾格whom,这点很简单,但有时它们引导的定语从句带有插入语,而该插入语后又不用逗号隔开,因此不易区分它是定语从句中的插入语还是定语从句中的主谓结构;这时就产生了用主格who还是用宾格whom这一困难。试比较和分析下列两组例句:

1. Jason is a man who I believe is honest.   我认为Jason是一个诚实的人。

(在定语从句who I believe is honest中,I believe是插入语,去掉该插入语剩下的便是Jason is a man who is honest,在语法及句意上都能成立,who是定语从句中动词is的主语,故用主格,不能用whom。)

2. Jason is a man whom I believe (to be) honest. 我认为Jason是一个诚实的人。

(在定语从句中whom I believe (to be) honest中,如把I believe当作插入语而予以删掉的话,剩下的句子结构便成为Jason is a man whom (to be) honest,显然不合语法,因而I believe不是插入语,而是定语从句中的主谓结构,whom作believe的宾语,(to be) honest是whom的宾语补足语。)

3. The girl who we supposed was drowned came back.我们以为淹死的那个女孩回来了。

(we supposed是插入语,因为去掉后,The girl who was drowned came back仍成立,who是谓语was drowned的主语,故不能用宾格形式whom。)

4. The girl whom we supposed (to be) drowned came back.我们以为淹死的那个女孩回来了。

(如把we supposed当作插入语加以删掉,剩下的句子结构The girl whom (to be) drowned came back在语法上不能成立,故在这句中we supposed不是插入语而是定语从句的主谓成分,whom作supposed的宾语,(to be)drowned作whom的宾语补足语。)


六﹑限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句的比较

从定语从句和它所修饰的先行词的关系来看,有限制性和非限制性的差别。限制性定语从句限定了先行词的范围和意义,这类从句不能省去。如果省去,剩下的部分(即主句)意思就会变得不清楚。这种定语从句和主句的关系十分密切,书写时中间不可用逗号分开。非限制性定语从句只起补充说明的作用,在意思上相当于一个并列的分句,如果省去,剩下的部分(即主句)意思仍然清楚。书写时,这种从句和主句之间往往用逗号分开。如:

1. I've found a man who can help you. (限制性的)我找到一个能帮助你的人。 

(如果省去定语从句,就只剩下I've found a man,意思就不清楚了,人家就会问:"你找到一个什么人呀?")

2. Autumn in Beijing is the season which is neither hot nor cold. (限制性的)

北京的秋天是不热也不冷的季节。

(如果省去定语从句,剩下Autumn in Beijing is the season,意思就不清楚了,人家就会问:"北京的秋天是什么样的季节呀?")

3. This is the place where the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army made the crossing in 1934. (限制性的)这就是工农红军1934年渡江的地方。

(如果省去定语从句,剩下This is the place,意思就不清楚了。)

4. Yesterday I visited Li Hong, who seemed to be very ill. (非限制性的)

昨天我看望了李红,他好像病得很厉害。 

(如果省去定语从句,剩下Yesterday I visited Li Hong, 句子的意思仍是清楚的。)

5. I knocked at the door of the chemist's, which immediately opened. (非限制性的)

我敲了一下药店的门,门随即打开了。

(如果省去定语从句,剩下I knocked at the door of the chemist's,句子的意思仍是清楚的。)

6. They will fly to London, where they plan to stay for four or five days. (非限制性的)

他们将乘飞机去伦敦,在那里他们打算呆四五天。

(如果省去定语从句,剩下They will fly to London, 意思还是清楚的。)

【注】有时一个定语从句,可以是限制性的,也可以是非限制性的,就看在它前面加不加逗号,加了逗号,不仅改变了句子的性质,试比较下面几对句子:

7. She has a sister, who is a musician. (非限制性的)    她有一个姐姐,是音乐家。

(她只有一个姐姐,她姐是音乐家。)

8. He borrowed all the books which had pictures in them. (限制性的)

他把所有里面有图画的书都借来了。

(他只借来那些里面有图画的书,别的书没有借)。

He borrowed all the books, which had pictures in them. (非限制性的)

他把所有的书都借来了,书里都有图画。(他借来了所有的书。)

9. In the class there are twelve students who are good at maths.  (限制性的)

这个班有12个数学学得好的学生。 (这个班不只12个学生。)

In the class there are twelve students, who are good at maths. (非限制性的)

这个班有12个学生,他们数学学得好。  (这个班上只有12个学生。)

10. I met with a lot of difficulties which I had not expected.  (限制性的)

我碰到了许多没有预料到的困难。(我碰到了许多困难,这些困难都是我没有预料到的。)

I met with a lot of difficulties, which I had not expected.  (非限制性的)

我碰到了许多困难,这(个情况)是我没有预料到的。

(句中的which并不代表前面的名词difficulties,而是代表主句所说的事实或情况,即"我碰到了许多困难"。)

(1). 限制性定语从句对先行词起修饰、限制和确定的作用,是不可缺少的修饰成分。如果去掉,主句的意思就不完整或失去意义,这种从句与主句的关系十分密切,不可分割,写时不能用逗号分开。

(2). 非限制性定语从句是对先行词或整个主句加以补充说明的,如果去掉,主句的意思仍然清楚、明了,不会影响主句的表达。这种从句与主句的关系比较松散,从句和主句间要用逗号分开。

试比较两种定语从句的不同:

The woman who lives downstairs is a musician.   住在楼下的那位女士是个音乐家。

The woman, who lives downstairs is a musician.  那个女人住在楼下,她是一个音乐家。

In the class there are twenty students who are very good at maths. 班上有二十个数学学得很好的学生。

(限制性定语从句:全班不只二十个学生,其中数学成绩好的只有二十个。)

In the class there are twenty students, who are very good at maths.

班上有二十个学生,他们数学学得很好。  (非限制性定语从句:班上只有二十个学生。)

(3)、在限制性定语从句中,引导词who、which、whom、that作宾语时,可以省略,在非限制性定语从句中,引导词who、which、whom不能省略,that不能用来引导非限制性定语从句。

This morning I met a friend (who/whom/that) I haven't seen for ages.

今天早上我碰见了一个很久未见的朋友。

(4)﹑在非限制性定语从句中,有时没有先行词,它可以修饰整个句子,常用的关系词为which和as。如:

He came back safety, which made everybody delighted.   他平安地回来了,这使得每个人都很高兴。

As we all know, China will host the Olympic Games in 2008.

众所周知,中国将在2008年举办奥运会。

(5)、当先行词是专有名词时,通常用非限制定语从句,因为专有名词本身就具有特

殊性,无需加以限定。

Shanghai, which is in East China, is developing rapidly.上海位于华东,正在飞速地发展。


七、定语从句使用时易犯的错误

由于定语从句的结构和用法比较复杂,初学者在使用时往往易犯一些错误。最常见的有下列四种:

在定语从句中用了多余的宾语。如:

1. 误:Some of the boys I invited them didn't come.

正:Some of the boys I invited didn't come.   我邀请的男生中有几个没有来。

应删去them。因为引导定语从句的whom或who或that在从句中已经代替them充当了宾语,不可以再在宾语从句中加入宾语。)

2. 误:Is this the horse you drew it yesterday?

正:Is this the horse you drew yesterday?   这就是你昨天画的马吗?

(应去掉it。引导定语从句的that或which在定语从句中已充当宾语,因此从句中不能再用it这个多余的宾语。)

3. 误:The book that you need it is in the library.

正:The book that you need is in the library.  你需要的书在图书馆里。

(应去掉it。因为that已经代替it充当了定语从句中的宾语,所以定语从句中不能再有多余的宾语it了。)

把定语从句谓语动词单、复数形式用错。如:

4. 误:Those who has finished may leave the classroom.

正:Those who have finished may leave the classroom.  做完了的同学可以离开教室。

(has应改为have。因为who代替的是复数those。)

5. 误:This is one of the rivers in China which flows northward.

正:This is one of the rivers in China which flow northward.   这是中国境内向北流的河流之一。

(flows应改为flow。因为which代替的是rivers,而不是one。)

6. 误:He is the one of the boys who are to attend the meeting.

正:He is the one of the boys who is to attend the meeting. 他是那些男孩中的一个,要去参加会议。

(are应改为is。因为one之前加有定冠词the,说明定语从句所修饰的是one而不是boys;所

以从句中的谓语动词不能用复数形式。)

省略了定语从句中不能省去的做主语的关系代词。

7. 误:Children eat a lot of sugar often get bad teeth.

正:Children who/that eat a lot of sugar often get bad teeth.   吃大量糖的儿童常患牙病。

(句子中出现了两个动词,并没有并列连词来连接。应在eat前添加关系代词who作定语从句的主语,指代children。)

8. 误:The key opens the room is missing.

正:The key which/that opens the room is missing.   开那房间的钥匙找不到了。

(定语从句中缺少关系代词,添加上which或that指代key在从句中作主语即可。)

9. 误:He went to a friend knew a lot about money matters.

正:He went to a friend who knew a lot about money matters.  他去找了一位了解金融知识的朋友。

(定语从句缺少关系代词,添加上who,指代friend在从句中作主语即可。)

定语从句中使用了多余的关系副词或介词。如:

10. 误:The house where he lives in needs repairing.

正:The house where he lives needs repairing.

或:The house he lives in/in which he lives needs repairing.   他居住的房子需要修理。

(应删去关系副词where或者介词in。因为where本身就等于介词加关系代词in which,定语从句中再出现介词就造成了句子成分重复。删去关系副词where保留介词in时,关系副词被关系代词which取代,在句子中可省略。)

11. 误:This is the time at when he is more likely to be in.

正:This is the time when he is more likely to be in.

或:This is the time at which he is more likely to be in.这个时间他很可能在家。

(应删去at或者改when为which。因为when本身就等于介词加关系代词,用when后再在从句中使用介词就造成了句子成分的重复。)

12. 误:Do you remember one afternoon ten years ago on when I came to your house and borrowed a diamond necklace?

正:Do you remember one afternoon ten years ago when I came to your house and borrowed a diamond necklace?

或:Do you remember one afternoon ten years ago on which I came to your house and borrowed a diamond necklace? 

你还记得十年前的一个下午我到你家借了一条钻石项链的事儿吗?

(删去介词on或变when为which。因为when本身就等于on加which,用when时前面再加on就造成句子的重复。)

【注】做有关定语从句的习题时,切记:(1)引导词在定语从句中一定要充当句子成分; (2)把句子中的定语从句划出来,还原成为一个简单句,这样,再填引导词或增减成分就显得容易得多。如:

13. He collected facts that proved the earth and all the other planets move around the sun.

还原成两个单句:(1)He collected facts.

(2)that proved the earth and all the other planets move around the sun.

  这时,可以看出,第二个句子缺少主语,填that或which都可以。

作者简介: 罗艺伟,知名英语教育专家,著名英语辅导专家,著名中高考命题研究及预测专家。中国教育在线英语资料评审组成员,甘肃省高考英语评卷组成员。主编有《英语语法考试指南》、《英语作文满分方略》、《新高考英语大纲词汇》及《高中英语精析高一上下册、高二上下册、高三全一册》等多部教学辅导图书。 



点击进入下载页面
(嘉兴)高中英语教学网 | www.jxenglish.com
站长:随心飞扬 | Email:jxenglish2006#163.com
本站为个人网站,所提供的英语教学资料仅供学校课堂教学及学习用
浙ICP备05071603号 | 浙公网安备 33049802000029号