试题下载

同步教学

备课中心

高考备考

语法词汇
高三英语第一轮语法复习教案-定语从句

【下载须知】

1. 本站提供的资料仅可用于学校课堂教学;
2. 本站提供的资料可能存在错误,请知晓;
3. 如侵权请联系站长:jxenglish2006#163.com

If download failed, please click here to refresh and try again
高三英语第一轮语法复习教案-定语从句
资料类型:    资料大小:95KB    资料来源:网络整理    上传时间:2020-07-08
资料预览
定语从句

定义

I. 定语从句起形容词的作用,在句中修饰一个名词或代词。被修饰的词叫做先行词,引导定语从句的词叫关系词,他的作用一是放在先行词与定语从句中间起了连接作用,二是在从句中担当一个成分,并与先行词保持数的一致。

关系词先行词从句

成分例句备注

关系代词who主语Do you know the man who is talking with your mother?whom, which和that在从句中做宾语时,常可以省略,但介词提前时后面关系代词不能省略,也不可以用that

whom宾语Mr. Smith is the person with whom I am working

The boy (whom) she loved died in the war..

whose人,物定语I like those books whose topics are about history.

The boy whose father works abroad is my desk mate.

that人,物主语

宾语A plane is a machine that can fly.

She is the pop star (that) I want to see very much.

which主语

宾语The book (which) I gave you was worth $10.

The picture which was about the accident was terrible.

as人,物主语

宾语He is such a person as is respected by all of us.

This is the same pen as I lost yesterday. as做宾语一般不省略

关系副词when时间时间

状语I will never forget the day when we met there.可用on which

where地点地点

状语This is the house where I was born.可用in which

why原因原因

状语I can't imagine the reason why he turned down my offer.可用for which


Ⅱ. as与which的区别:

定语

从句区别例句

限制性定语从句 中名词前有such和the same修饰时,关系代词用as,不能用whichHe is not such a fool as he looks.

Don't read such books as you can't understand. 

非限制性定语从句中as和which都可以指代前面整个主句。如果有"正如,象"的含义,并可以放在主句前,也可以放在后面,那么用as;而which引导的从句只能放主句后,并无"正如"的意思。They won the game, as we had expected.

They won the game, which we hadn't expected.

As is well known, he is a famous film star in the 1980s.


Ⅲ. 限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别:

类别语法意义及特征例句

限制性定语从句对先行词起修饰限制作用,如果去掉,主句意思就不完整明确,这种从句与主句的关系十分密切,写时不用逗号分开。The accident happened at the time when I left.

非限制性定语从句 对先行词作附加的说明,与主句的关系不十分密切,较松散。从句和主句之间用逗号分开,相当于一个插入语,不能用that引导,关系代词做宾语时也不能省略。His mother, whom he loved deeply, died ten years ago.


一、考点聚焦

1、功能:相当于形容词,修饰名词或代词,在句中作定语

2、位置:定语从句置于被修饰词之后

 Those who are willing to attend the party, sign here please.

3、先行词:被定语从句修饰的词称为先行词

(1)先行词一般是名词和不定代词,如:some-, any-, every-和no与-boy, -thing的合成词;或all、none、any、some、that、those等代词。数词也可以作先行词,人称代词也同样可作先行词。

(2)先行词与关系词是等量关系。必须注意两点:

 ①先行词在从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的数由先行词而定。

 This is the place which is worth visiting.

 ②关系词在从句句子中充当了成分,其意思就是先行词的意义,所以在从句中不能重复其意。

There are many places we can visit(them)in China.

4、关系词:引导定语从句的都称关系词

关系代词:who, whom, which, that, whose, as。

关系副词:when, where, why。that偶尔也作关系副词。

5、确定关系词的步骤

(1)先找关系词,看先行词指的是什么。

(2)看关系词在从句中所充当的成分。

6、在定语从句中,当先行词指物时,下列情况的关系词宜用that而不用which

(1)先行词被①形容词最高级 ②序数词 ③数词几种词修饰或被 ④only、any、few、little、no、all、one of等修饰时。

(2)先行词为all、much、little、none、few、one、something、anything等不定代词时。

(3)先行词中既有人又有物时。

 He was looking pleasantly at te children and parcels that filled his bus.

(4)先行词在主句中作表语关系词在从句中作表语时。

 The village is no longer the one that was 5 years ago.

(5)当主句中含有疑问词which时。

 Which are the books that you bought for me ?

7、宜用which而不用that的情况

 (1)在非限制性定语从句中

 (2)在关系词前有介词时

 (3)当先行词本身是that时

 (4)当关系词离先行词较远时

8、关系词who与that指人时,也有不同情况分别用不同的关系词

(1)当主句是there be句型时,关系词用who。

(2)先行词是为anyone、those、someone、everyone、one等词时,关系词用who。

(3)当主句是who作疑问词时,关系词用that。

 Who is that girl that is standing by the window?

(4)whom在从句中只作宾语,可被who取代。

 9、whose作关系词既指人又指物,在从句中作定语。如:

 Do you know Mr. Smith whose story is very moving?

 There is a room, whose window faces the river.

 There is a room, the window of which faces the river.

 10、关系代词as,在从句中作主语、宾语和表语。

 (1)先行词被such和the same修饰,或句型as many(much)中,从句都用as 引导。

 Such books as you bought are useful.     The school is just the same as it was 10 years age.

 注意:区别①such … that … 引导的结果状语从句。They are such lovely children that we love them much .②the same … that … 引导定语从句。I want to use the same tool that you used just now.

(2)无先行词的定语从句用as和which引导。

区别:①意义上:as 含有"这点正如……一样"。②位置上:as 从句可置句首,也可在另处。

He didn't pass the exam, as we had expected.

There is lots of air in loose snow, which can keep the cold out.

As is known, the earth is round, not flat.

11、关系副词when与where、why、that

when 指时间 = in / at / on / during which

where指地点 = in / at / from / which

why指原因 = for which

当先行词为way、day、reason、time时,可用that作关系副词。(非正式场合)

I don't like the way that / in which / he talks.

 当time作先行词时,关系词可以省掉。

 This is the first time I have given you a lesson in French.

 12、必须注意的问题

 (1)关系词作主语时,从句中谓语的数。

 (2)注意区别定语从句与强调句。

 ①定语从句中关系词作从句成分,复合句。

 ②强调it无意义,that / who不是引导词。

 ③强调it is / was和that / who后如果句子意思讲得通则是强调句,讲不通则不是。

 It is the museum that / which we visited last year.(定语从句)

 It was in the hotel that we stayed last night.(强调句)

 (3)定语从句与同位语从句的区别。

 ①定语从句引导词被称为关系词,that充当主语、宾语、表语。有时可省略。

 ②同位语从句引导词被叫做连词,that不能充当任何成分,不可省。

 Word came that their army was defeated.(同位语)

 We expressed to them our wish that was the same as their.(定语)

 (4)关系词在从句中省略的情况。

 ①关系词作宾语,前无介词时。

 ②关系词作表语。

 (5)限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的翻译。

 (6)关系词前有介词或复杂介词,关系词只能是which和whom。

 (7)几个特殊的定语从句句型:

①He is the only one of the students who has got very good marks in the match.(句中one为先行词)

 He is one of the students who have got good marks in the match.(句中students为先行词)

 ②Is this place the one (that) we visited yesterday? Is this the place (that / which) we visited yesterday? 

 ③He stood at the window, from where he could see what was happening.

④It may rain, in which case the match will be put off.

二、精典名题导解

 1. The film brought the hours back to me _________ I was taken good care of in that faraway village.(NMET 2001)

 A. until          B. that          C. when           D. where

 解析:答案为C。本题考查分隔定语从句的关系词的选择。作好本题的关键是要能辨认出该定语从句的先行词the hours和关系词被介词短语to me所分隔。定语从句的先行词是表时间的名词hours, 并且关系词在从句中用作状语,故应选择表示时间的关系副词when。

 2. ___________ is known to everybody, the noon travels around the earth once every month.(NMET  2001)

 A. It            B. As            C. That           D. What

 解析:答案为B。本题考查as引导的非限制定语从句。as作"正如……"解时,引导的非限制性定语从句来修饰整个句子。当as在从句中作主语时,常用于下列短语:as is known、as is said、as is reported、as is announced等。要注意掌握作关系代词引导定语从句的用法。

 3. After living in Pairs for fifty years he returned to the small town ___________ he grew up as a child.(NMET  1996)

 A. which         B. where         C. that            D. when

  解析:答案为B。本题考查限制性定语从句中关系词的选择。定语从句的先行词是表示地点的名词短语the small town, 且关系词不作定语从句中的主语和宾语而作地点状语,因此定语从句必须用关系副词where引导。要注意分清先行词在从句中充当的成分,然后选择适当的关系词。


定语从句基础训练题

一.改错

1. I'm using the pen which he bought it yesterday.   

2. Is that factory which your father once worked in?  

3. The man whom I spoke is from Canada.         

4. July 1,1999 is the day when we'll never forget.    

5. I still remember the holidays I stayed with them.   

6. I'm going to work in the hospital where needs me.  

7. Those that haven't been to the West Lake will gather at the school gate. 

8. I don't like the way which you talked to your friend. 

9. This is the last time when I've given you lessons.  

10. Soon they came to a farm house, and in front of which sat a small boy.

11. We heard the news which our team won the game.  

12. The reason which he explained it sounds reasonable. 

13. Those at the desk want to buy tickets write down your names. 

14. That was the reason because she looked old.   

15. Taiwan, that we know, belongs to China.      

16. The third place which we are going to visit is Hangzhou.  

17. Which is known to all, many satellite are going around in the sky. 

18. The students and things which you spoke of are known to us. 

19. Look out! Don't get too close to the house of which roof is under repair.  

二.用恰当的关系代词或关系副词填空

1. I will always remember the hours _____________ we lived together.

  I will always remember the hours ____________ we spent together

2. Can you still think of the village ______________he once worked?

  Can you still think of the village ______________ he once visited? 

3.____ is known to everybody, the moon travels round the earth.

_____ is known to everybody that the moon travels round the earth.

4. I have borrowed many books, many of _______ are about music.                                             I have borrowed many books, and many of _____ are about music

5. There are 50 students in their class, most of ________ are from Tonglu.               

There are 50 students in their class, and most of _______ are from Tonglu

三.用适当的介词填空

The sun gives us heat and light, ________ which we can't live.

2. The student ________ whom we were talking just now is the best student in our class.

3. I'll never forget the day _____ which she said good-bye to me.

4. Who can give me the reason ______ which he hasn't turned up yet?

5. Mandela was the black lawyer______ whom I went for advice.                                                                                   6. He was generous with his time, _______ which I was grateful.                                                                             7. The parts of town ________ which they had to live were decided by white people.                                                        8. It was a prison ________which no one escaped.                      

9. He is a man of great experience, _________ whom much can be learned.                                                    10. Chapin, _______whom money was now no problem, start a new film company with his friends.      

四.单项选择

1. The pretty lady _________you told me the other day turned out to be a thief.

A. who        B. whom          C. about whom        D. with whom

2. Is this the factory ______your father used to work many years ago?

A. the place        B. which      C. in which       D. the one in which 

3. Do you know who lives in the building ______ there is a big apple tree? 

A. in front of it       B. in front of whose   

C. in front of where    D. in front of which

4. The person ____my father spoke just now is my English teacher.

A. who         B. to whom         C. to who          D. whom 

5. The reason ______she didn't come to Tom's birthday is that her mother won't let her.

A .that          B. which        C. for which       D. for what

6. China is a beautiful country, _____we are greatly proud.

A. which       B. in which        C. of which        D. where

7. I will never forget the day _____I join the army.

A. on which         B in which      C. which           D at which  

8. Last week, only two people came to look at the house, _____wanted to buy it.

A. none of them          B. both of them      

C. none of whom          D. neither of whom

9.There are two buildings,______stands nearly a hundred feet high.

A. the larger             B. the larger of them   

C. the larger one that     D. the larger of which

10. "I'd like to give my thanks to those____ help my son will be able to survive his terrible disease," said the woman on TV. 

A who       B that        C with whose      D with their



定语从句强化训练题

1. Some of the roads were flooded, _____ made our journey more difficult. 

  A. which     B. it    C. what     D. that 

2. Finally they arrived at a place_______ sold cigarettes and other small articles.

A. where          B. which       C. in which         D. what 

3. He was educated at a local grammar school, ______ he went on to Cambridge. 

  A. from whichB. after thatC. after whichD. from this 

4. Some pre-school children go to a day care center, _______they learn simple games and songs. 

  A. then           B. there       C. while          D. where

5. -Mom, what did the doctor say? 

-He advised me to live______ the air is fresher.

A. in where       B. in which     C. the place where     D.   Where

6. It is reported that two schools,_______ are being built in my hometown,will open next year. 

  A.they both    B.which both  C.both of them      D.both of which

7.A survey was carried out on the death rate of newborn babies in that area,           were surprising.

A.as results  B.which results    C.the results of it   D.the results of which

8.There were two small rooms in the house, ____served as kitchen.

A. the smaller of which   B. the small of which  

C. the smaller of them    D. the smaller one

9. Frank's dream was to have his own shop ____ to produce the workings of his own hands. 

A. that   B. in which   C. by which   D. how 

10. "I'd like to give my thanks to those         help my son will be able to survive his terrible disease," said the woman on TV.

A.whoB.thatC.with whoseD.with their

11. She had two new cars, ______ was made in Japan.

  A. one             B. which  C. and one of which  D. and one of them

12. On my way home I met a man, ______ I think was her brother.

  A. whom  B. that  C. who  D. /

13. Next winter, ______ you will spend in Harbin, I'm sure, will be another exciting holiday. 

  A. which     B. when     C. in which     D. that

14. _____ to take the English Evening Course, please fill in this form.

  A. Those who want      B. Anyone wants

  C. Those that want       D. People want

15. I don't like _____ you solve such problems.

  A. the way           B. the way in that

  C. the way which       D. the way of which

16. The factory produces half a million pairs of shoes every year, _____ 80% are sold abroad.    

 A. of which     B. which of    C. of them     D. of that

17. I can think of many cases _____ students obviously knew a lot of English words and expressions but couldn't write a good essay.

  A. why     B. which        C. as      D. where

18. The Oscar is the only one of the film prizes _____ offered to any Chinese actor or actress by far.

  A. which is not     B. that have not been

  C. that has not       D. that has not been

19. Is this factory __________ some foreign friends visited last Friday?

   A. that   B. where   C. which   D. the one

20. That tree, __________ branches are almost bare, is very old.

   A. whose   B. of which   C. in which   D. on which

21. I have bought the same dress __________ she is wearing.

   A. as         B. that             C. which            D. what

22. This is the very film _______ I've long wished to see.

   A. which        B. that      C. who        D. whom


定语从句高考题

2007年高考

1. His movie won several awards at the film festival, ______ was beyond his wildest dream.

 (上海卷)

  A. whichB. that            C. where         D. it

2. -Where did you get to know her? 

-It was on the farm _________ we worked. (山东卷) 

A.that              B.there             C.which          D.where 

3. Last week, only two people came to look at the house, _______ wanted to buy it. (安徽卷)

  A. none of them    B. both of them        C. none of whom        D. neither of whom

4. We shouldn't spent our money testing so many people, most of _____are healthy(北京卷)

A. that              B. which             C. what             D. whom

5. By serving others, a person focuses on someone other than himself or herself, ___________ can be very eye-opening and rewarding. (湖南卷)

  A. who               B. which           C. what             D. that 

6. He was educated at the local high school, ______ he went on to Beijing University. (江苏卷)

  A. after whichB. after thatC. in which        D. in that

7. After graduation she reached a point in her career     she heeded to decide what to do. (江西卷)

  A. that              B. what             C. which               D. where

8. Some pre-school children go to a day care center, _______they learn simple games and songs. (全国卷I)

  A. then               B. there          C. while              D. where

9. Today, we'll discuss a number of cases          beginners of English fail to use the language properly. (陕西卷)

A. which   B. as   C. why       D. where

10. The thought of going back home was     kept him happy while he was working abroad.(上海春)

A.thatB.all thatC.all whatD.which

11. It is reported that two schools,_______ are being built in my hometown,will open next year.

 (四川卷)

  A.they both       B.which both    C.both of them    D.both of which

12. Those successful deaf dancers think that dancing is an activity ________ sight matters more than hearing. (天津卷)

A. when           whose      C. which       D. where

13. Chan's restaurant on Baker Street, ______ used to be poorly run, is now a successful business. (浙江卷)

  A. that                B. which            C. who            D. where 

14. Human facial expressions differ from those of animals in the degree ______ they can be controlled on purpose. (重庆卷)

A. with which     B. to which    C. of which       D. for which

15. Eric received training in computer for one year, _____ he found a job in a big company. (辽宁卷)

A. after that           B. after which         C. after it      D. after this

16.The village has developed a lot           we learned farming two years ago. (福建卷)

A. whenB. which     C. that    D. where


2008年高考

1. By nine o'clock, all the Olympic torch bearers had reached the top of Mount Qomolangma, ____ appeared a rare rainbow soon. (福建卷)

   A. of which           B. on which        C. from which         D. above which

2. The growing speed of a plant is influenced by a number of factors, _____ are beyond our control. (湖南卷)

A.most of them B. most of which C. most of what D. most of that 

3. The Science Museum, ______ we visited during a recent trip to Britain, is one of London's tourist attractions. (江苏卷)

   A. whichB. whatC. thatD. where

4. Occasions are quite rare ______ I have the time to spend a day with my kids. (山东卷)

A. whoB. whichC. whyD. when

5. Later in this chapter cases will be introduced to readers __ consumer complaints have resulted in changes in the law. (江西卷)

A. where            B. when   C. who               D. which

6. The road conditions there turned out to be very good, ___ was more than we could expect. 

(全国II)

A. it      B. what    C. which    D. that

7. Tomorrow is Tom's birthday. Have you got any idea _________ the party is to be held? (陕西卷)

A. what      B. which      C. that        D. where

8. The man pulled out a gold watch, _________ were made of small diamonds. (陕西卷)

A. the hands of whom                 B. whom the hands of

C. which the hands of                  D. the hands of which

9. For many cities in the world, there is no room to spread our further, _______ New York is an example. (四川卷)

  A. for which      B. in which       C. of which        D. from which

10. Yesterday she sold her car, ______ she bought a month ago. (浙江卷)

A. whom         B. where        C. that            D. which

11. I'll give you your friend's home address,       I can be reached most evenings. (北京卷)

   A. which          B. when           C. whom          D. where

12. They will fly to Washington, ___ they plan to stay for two or three days. (重庆卷)

A. where      B. there         C. which           D. when 

13. We went through a period ___ communications were very difficult in the rural areas(上海卷).

A. whichB. whose  C. in which         D. with which





参考答案

一.改错:

1. 去掉it   2. which改为the one    3. 在man后加to   4. when改为that或which或去掉   5. 在holidays后加when     6. where改为 that或which      7. that改为who

8. 去掉which或改为that也可在which前加in   9. when改为that   

10. 去掉and或把which改为it    11. which改为that    12. 去掉it   

13. 在want前加who    14. because改为why   15. that改为as    16. which改为that  

17. which改为as    18. which改为that      19. 在roof前加the  


二.用恰当的关系代词或复习填空

1.when; that/which/不填   2.where;that/which/不填   3. As;It   4.which;them

5.whom;them


三.用适当的介词填空

1. without which   2.about/with    3.on    4.for    5. to   6. for   7. in   8.from    

9. from    10.for   


四.单项选择题

1-5 CCDBC   6-10 CADDC


定语从句强化训练题

1-5 ABCDD    6-10 DDABC    11-15 BCBAA    16-22 ABCDAAA


定语从句高考题

2007年高考题

1-5ADDDB    6-10 ADDDB   11-16 DDBBBD

2008年高考题

1-5 DBADA    6-10 CBDCD    11-13 DAC




点击进入下载页面
(嘉兴)高中英语教学网 | www.jxenglish.com
站长:随心飞扬 | Email:jxenglish2006#163.com
本站为个人网站,所提供的英语教学资料仅供学校课堂教学及学习用
浙ICP备05071603号 | 浙公网安备 33049802000029号