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江苏省南京市2021届高三第一学期开学考试英语试题

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江苏省南京市2021届高三第一学期开学考试英语试题
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南京市2020~2021学年度高三年级第一学期期初检测

英语试题            2020. 08

(满分:150分,考试时间:120分钟)

第二部分 阅读理解(共两节,满分40分)

第一节(共15小题;每小题2分,满分30分)

阅读下列短文,从每题所给的A、B、C和D四个选项中,选出最佳选项。

A

It’s generally believed that people act the way they do because of their personalities and attitudes. They recycle their garbage because they care about the environment. They pay$5 for a caramel brulee latte because they like expensive coffee drinks. 

It’s undeniable that behavior comes from our inner dispositions(性情),but in many instances we also draw inferences about who we are, as suggested by the social psychologist Daryl Bem, by observing our own behavior. We can be strangers to ourselves. If we knew our own minds, why would we need to guess what our preferences are from our behavior? If our minds were an open book, we would know exactly how much we care about the environment or like lattes. Actually, we often need to look to our behavior to figure out who we are. 

Moreover, we don’t just use our behavior to learn about our particular types of character-we infer characters that weren’t there before. Our behavior is often shaped by little pressures around us, which we fail to recognize. Maybe we recycle because our wives and neighbors would disapprove if we didn’t. Maybe we buy lattes in order to impress the people around us. We should not mistakenly believe

that we always behave as a result of some inner disposition. 

Whatever pressures there can be or inferences one can make, people become what they do, though it may not be in compliance(符合) with their true desires. Therefore, we should all bear in mind Kurt Vonnegut’s advice: "We are what we pretend to be, so we must be careful about what we pretend to be. "

21. According to the passage, personalities and attitudes are commonly believed to_______

A. determine one’s behavior                          B. reflect one’ s taste

C. influence one’s surroundings                    D. result from one’s habits

22. Which of the following would Daryl Bem most probably agree with?

A. The return of a wallet can indicate one’s honesty. 

B. A kind person will offer his seat to the old. 

C. One recycles plastics to protect the environment. 

D. One buys latte out of true love of coffee. 

23. What can be inferred from the underlined sentence in the passage?

A. We fail to realize our inner dispositions. 

B. We can be influenced by outside pressures. 

C. Our behavior is the result of our true desires. 

D. Our characters can shape our social relationships. 

24. What does the author mainly discuss in the passage?

A. Personalities and attitudes.                        B. Preferences and habits. 

C. Behavior and personalities.                       D. Attitudes and preferences. 

B

One moment it was quiet and calm in the forest, the next, the air was charged with tension. The elephant had heard the distant alarm calls of animals and her mood suddenly changed. l urged the elephant deeper into the forest. We sounded like a forest fire-crackling, snapping, trailblazing. But through all the noise came a sharp warning cry. The elephant stopped and we heard it again-the tell-tale call of a spotted deer. 

I looked quickly around the shadows of the forest. Rays of sunlight shone through tree branches, beneath which the patchwork(交错) of green plants and shadows-within-shadows would make tiger stripes(条纹) look more attractive. Apart from an occasional noise from the elephant’s stomach, the forest was silent. 

Gradually, the tension slipped from our bodies. The elephant seized a nearby branch and put it into her mouth. l reached forward and gently moved my hand over the elephant’s neck; there was a soft part, free of wrinkles and hairs, behind her ear. 

This was my fourth time to sense the aura of the forest in Corbett, although I saw no tigers in the end. Located at the foot of the Himalayan mountains, Corbett is home to about 135 Bengal tigers, but the forest seemed to be guarding their whereabouts(出没处),a silent reminder of their secrecy and rarity. Still, I was happy enough touching the elephant behind the ear. If I had so desperately wanted to see a tiger, l could have gone to a zoo. After all, spotting tigers merely confirms their beauty; tracking them can make you aware of something more. 

25. Which of the following was a clear signal of alarm?

A. The elephant stopped.                   B. A spotted deer called. 

C. The elephant seized a branch.       D. The forest was silent for a while. 

26. The author begins his account of the tour in the forest mainly by. 

A. describing various sounds               B. comparing different animals

C. listing different activities               D. introducing various plants

27. What does the underlined part "to sense the aura" most probably mean?

A. To see the diversity.                      B. To enjoy the scenery. 

C. To feel the atmosphere.               D. To experience the freedom. 

28. How does the author feel after several visits to Corbett?

A. Seeing a Bengal tiger is quite thrilling. 

B. It is very time-consuming to travel in Corbett. 

C. It is really worthwhile to study the animals in Corbett. 

D. The process of finding Bengal tigers is most appealing. 

C

The idea of being able to walk on water has long interested humans greatly. Sadly, biological facts prevent us ever accomplishing such a thing without artificial aid-we simply weigh too much, and all our mass pushes down through our relatively small feet, resulting in a lot of pressure that makes us sink. 

However, several types of animals can walk on water. One of the most interesting is the common basilisk Basilicus basilicus, a lizard(蜥蜴) native of Central and South America. It can run across water for a distance of several meters, avoiding getting wet by rapidly hitting the water’s surface with its feet. The lizard will take as many as 20 steps per second to keep moving forward. For humans to do this, we’d need huge feet that we could bring up to our ears in order to create adequate “hitting”.

But fortunately there is an alternative: cornflour. By adding enough of this common thickening agent to water(and it does take a lot), you can create a "non-Newtonian" liquid that doesn’t behave like normal water. Now, if the surface of the water is hit hard enough, particles(粒子) in the water group together for a moment to make the surface hard. Move quickly enough and put enough force into each step, and you really can walk across the surface of an adequately thick liquid of cornflour. 

Fun though all this may sound, it’s still rather messy and better read about in theory than carried out in practice. If you must do it, then keep the water wings handy in case you start to sink-and take a shower afterward!

29. Walking on water hasn’t become a reality mainly because humans. 

A. are not interested in it                        B. have biological limitations

C. have not invented proper tools          D. are afraid to make an attempt

30. What do we know about Basilicus basilicus from the passage?

A. It is light enough to walk on water. 

B. Its huge feet enable it to stay above water. 

C. It can run across water at a certain speed. 

D. Its unique skin keeps it from getting wet in water. 

31. What is the function of the cornflour according to the passage?

A. To create a thick liquid.                   B. To turn the water into solid. 

C. To help the liquid behave normally.   D. To enable the water to move rapidly. 

32. What is the author’s attitude toward the idea of humans’ walking on water?

A. It is risky but beneficial.                           B. It is interesting and worth trying. 

C. It is crazy and cannot become a reality.   D. It is impractical though theoretically possible. 

D

There have always been a lot of commonly believed but false ideas about being fat and doing exercise. Some people believe that they can’t help putting on weight as they get older, while others hold that if they stop exercising, their muscles will turn into fat. Here are some more myths:

I’ ll never lose weight-I come from a fat family

Wrong! While we can’t change the body type we are born with, we can’t blame our genes for making us fat. There’s plenty of evidence that fatness runs in families, and the main reason is that they share the same habits of eating too much and exercising too little. 

I am fat because I burn calories slowly

Wrong! Fatness is not caused by a slow metabolism(新陈代谢)。In fact, although fat people consume more energy than slim people, they also fail to realize how much they eat! Keeping a diary can help you work out your daily food intake more accurately. 

Exercise is boring

Wrong! Anything will become boring if you do it repetitively. The key is to develop a balanced and varied program that’s fun as well as progressive. If you enjoy a Sunday walk, take a different route. If you do yoga, try a tai chi class. If you like swimming, set yourself a distance or time challenge. 

No pain, no gain

Wrong! Exercise is not meant to hurt. Indeed, pain is your body telling you something’s wrong, and continuing to exercise could lead to serious injury. You may experience mild discomfort as you begin to exercise regularly, but this is your body adapting to the positive changes in your lifestyle and the aches should disappear relatively quickly. If they don’t, rest and seek medical advice. 

33. What does the author think about being fat?

A. It is the family genes that make people fat. 

B. People are fat because they consume too little energy. 

C. A diary of exercise can prevent people from becoming fat. 

D. It is the consequence of people’s unbalanced lifestyle. 

34. According to the author, how can we make exercise more interesting?

A. By taking varied exercise.             B. By choosing simple exercise. 

C. By doing regular exercise.           D. By sticking to outdoor exercise. 

35. What is the author’s opinion about "No pain, no gain" in exercising?

A. Keeping fit is essentially a painful experience. 

B. Exercise should be stopped if continuous pain is felt. 

C. Pain in exercise is a precondition for reaching your goal. 

D. Getting used to pain leads to positive changes in your body. 

第二节(共5小题;每小题2分,满分10分)

根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选项。

W:Hello, Jack. You’re getting ready for tomorrow’s lessons, aren’t you?

M:Yes, I’m a bit nervous. 36

W:I understand how you’re feeling. You’ll make a lot of friends very soon. 

M:Thank you. I’ll try my best to get used to my new school life as soon as possible. 

37

W:At 8 o’ clock. 38

M:Say it, please. 

W:Before class we have 10 minutes to hand in homework and then 20 minutes for morning reading. 

M:That’ s to say, we must get to school at 7:25. Five minutes later we’d hand in homework. Right?

W:Right. 39

M:Well. I hear that lunch time is nearly 12 o’ clock and I’ ll be starving by then. 

W:Don’t worry. 40

M:That’s great. 

A. So I suggest you get up before 7:00. 

B. By the way, what time does the first class begin?

C. How long will it take us to finish our homework?

D. But there is some other suggested time you should remember. 

E. During the break after the second class, we can buy something to eat. 

F. I have no idea what’ ll happen in class and how I’ll get along with my classmates. 

G. I really don’t know what to do after class. 

第三部分 语言知识运用(共两节,满分40分)

第一节(共20小题;每小题1分,满分20分)

阅读下面短文,从短文后各题所给的A、B、C和D四个选项中,选出可以填入空白处的 最佳选项。

A Welcome Gift

Dario and his mother loved their new apartment. The living room was large enough for their piano. That night, the two of them 41_side by side at the piano. They played jazz music to celebrate their new home. The loud 42 filled the room and made them feel very happy. 

The next morning, 43 , their happiness disappeared. Someone had left a_ 44 under their door during the night. One of their neighbors had written to complain(抱怨) about the sound of the piano. Dario’s mother asked the building superintendent(管理员) if he knew anything about it. But he said that they were all 45 people and he couldn’t imagine any of them had done that. Later that morning, Dario suggested that they write a letter to their 46 and apologize for their playing. 

"Maybe we could go and 47 everyone in person, "his mother said. 

"What if we invited them to come here for a 48 instead?" Dario asked. 

They both loved the 49. Over the next few days, they sent out invitations and prepared desserts 50 their guests. They decorated the apartment with streamers(彩带) and party lights. 

Finally, the day of the party 51. Some guests brought presents. Others brought flowers. Some even brought desserts to 52. One woman, Mrs. Gilbert, 53 Dario’s mother with a book of piano music by Chopin. 

"I heard you playing the other night, "she said. "The sounds woke me out of bed. l 54 that you might play like this every night. So I wrote a short note. l hope you don’t think I disliked the playing. "

Dario’s mother smiled at Mrs. Gilbert. "I think maybe we 55 you an apology, " she said. "I didn’t 56 how late it was when we were playing. Maybe we should play some quieter music at night. "

"You play, you play!"Mrs. Gilbert said. "I like what you play! Just not so loud at night. "She pointed to the book she had given them. "These songs are not such_ 57 music. "

"These songs are beautiful music, "Dario’s mother said. "We will be 58 to play them in the evening. "

"And we won’t play so loud or late!" Dario said. He was already looking forward to 59 the new music. More than that, however, he was happy to see the big smile on his mother’s face. It gave him a feeling of 60 and made him feel that they were home at last. 

41. A. satB. stoodC. layD. walked

42. A. voiceB. ringC. music D. cry

43. A. thereforeB. howeverC. otherwiseD. instead

44. A. noteB. posterC. billD. report

45. A. proudB. richC. luckyD. nice

46. A. neighborsB. friendsC. relativesD. audiences

47. A. blameB. instructC. questionD. visit

48. A. partyB. concertC. showD. play

49. A. experienceB. ideaC. performanceD. action

50. A. toB. withC. forD. from

51. A. continuedB. arrivedC. passedD. finished

52. A. orderB. sellC. shareD. advertise

53. A. treatedB. presentedC. helpedD. served

54. A. promisedB. admittedC. agreedD. worried

55. A. giveB. sendC. offerD. owe

56. A. realizeB. rememberC. understandD. accept

57. A. sweetB. strangeC. funnyD. loud

58. A. braveB. sorryC. happyD. afraid

59. A. changingB. practicingC. recordingD. writing

60. A. equalityB. freedomC. warmthD. sympathy

第二节(共10小题;每小题1. 5分,满分15分)

阅读下面短文,在空白处填入1个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式。

M:Miss Green, do you think people could work at home instead of working in offices in future?

W:Oh, yes. It’s(61)h__________    now. You see, the communication industry has made much progress in the(62)l________ ten years. 

M:And how do these people manage to work? I mean, (63)w________ equipment do they have at home?

W:Well, they have a TV set, a computer, a printer and a phone to(64)c___________ with other computers. 

M:I see. But surely there’ re some(65)a____________ in being able to work at home. 

W:Yes. Working at home, people don’t have to spend a lot of time getting to and from their workplace. The rush hours, (66)a______ everyone knows, are the(67)w __________times of day to travel. Millions of people spend their working lives getting up early to(68) a________ the rush hours. 

M:Ah, I see. What do you think(69)a___________ the condition of home workers?

W:OK, a British film will have(70)s ___________a condition here next year. 

第三节(共5小题;每小题1分,满分5分)

71. We’re taking our vacation in___________(七月). 

72. You can get even better deals if you are prepared to___________(讨价还价). 

73. The cards had been________________(卡住)through the letterbox. 

74. Smith went to Chicago for____________(技术)training. 

75. Bob is six feet in__________(身高)

第四部分 写作(共两节,满分40分)

第一节 应用文写作(满分15分)

目前iPad 已成为儿童视力第一杀手,请根据下图写一篇80词左右的英语短文,内容应包括:

简要描述图画内容;

表明你的观点。

 


注意:

1. 短文的开头已给出,不计入总词数;

2. 可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯;

As is shown in the picture above, _______________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________


第二节 读后续写(满分25分)

阅读下面短文,然后按照要求写一篇150词左右的英语短文

More and more parents are sending their children on "micro-foreign study tours". Parents hope these tours, typically 10 to 14 days travelling through English-speaking countries such as America or the UK, will help improve their children’s language proficiency as well as provide them with a greater understanding of the local customs and culture. 

But while these tours are "micro" in terms of time, they certainly aren’t micro in price. The average tour costs RMB 30, 000!

And just how useful are they? First of all, participating children don’t have much time to "study". They typically attend a few morning lessons then travel to some world-famous universities or scenic spots in the afternoon and on the weekend. Their exposure to the local culture comes mainly during the time they stay with a local family, usually 2 or 3 days. For the rest of the tour they are with

their Chinese classmates, almost always speaking Chinese. And on some tours, organizers take students, who are often too young to make sensible decisions, on shopping trips where they’re encouraged to buy all kinds of useless "souvenirs". No wonder when they return, most children talk of the "fun we had", and "places we saw "rather than the" things we learnt". 

So some parents are now having second thoughts about the value of these micro-foreign study tours. How much do they really help their children? Are they worth the money? And finally, are the tours meant for study or just for pleasure?

【写作内容】

1. 以约30词概括上文的主要内容。

2. 以约120词对父母送孩子出国游学的现象进行讨论,内容包括:

(1)你是否赞成文中对出国游学的看法?

(2)以你或他人的经历说明你的观点;

(3)如果有机会,你愿意参加什么样的出国游学?

【写作要求】

(1)在作文中可以使用自己亲身的经历或虚构的故事,也可以参照阅读材料的内容但不得直

接引用原文中的句子;

(2)作文中不能出现真实姓名和学校名称。

【评分标准】

概括准确,语言规范,内容合适,篇章连贯。


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