As we grow old, we realize that we have so little time to read and there are so many great books that we’ve yet to get around to. Yet re-readers are everywhere around us. For certain fans, re-reading The Lord of the Rings is a conventional practice annually. One friend told me that Jane Austen’s Emma can still surprise him, despite his having read it over 50 times.
New sudden clear understandings can be gained from the process of re-reading. Journalist Rebacca Mead, a long-time Englishwoman in New York, first came across George Eliot’s Middlemarch at 17. Since then, she has read it again every five years. With each re-reading, it has opened up further; in each chapter of her life, it has resonated(引起共鸣) differently. Mead evidenced the large number of ways in which really good books not only stand the test of repeat reads, but also offer fresh gifts each time we crack their spines. These kinds of books grow with us.
Scientists have also recognized the mental health benefits of re-reading. Research conducted with readers in the US found that on our first reading, we are concerned with the “what” and the“why”. Second time round, we’re able to better appreciate the emotions that the plot continues to express. As researcher Cristel Russell of the American University explained, returning to a book “brings new or renewed appreciation of both the great book and its readers”.
It’s true that we often find former selves on the pages of old books (if we’re fond of making notes on the pages). These texts can carry us back to a time and place, and remind us of the kind of person that we were then. We’re changed not only by lived experience but also by read experience—by the books that we’ve discovered since last reading the one in our hand.
More so than the movie director or the musician, the writer calls upon our imaginations, using words to lead us to picture this declaration of love or that unfaithfulness in life. A book is a joint project between writers and readers, and we must pour so much of ourselves into reading that our own life story can become connected with the story in the book.
Perhaps what’s really strange is that we don’t re-read more often. After all, we watch our favourite films again and we wouldn’t think of listening to an album only once. We treasure messy old paintings as objects, yet of all art forms, literature alone is a largely one-time delight. A book, of course, takes up more time, but as Mead confirms, the rewards make it adequately worthwhile.
21. The two books are mentioned in Paragraph1mainly to_______.
A. attract the attention of readers
B. introduce the topic of the passage
C. provide some background information
D. show the similarity between re-readers
22. It can be learned from the passage that_______.
A. reading benefits people both mentally and physically
B. readers mainly focus on feelings on their first reading
C. we know ourselves better through re-reading experience
D. writers inspire the same imaginations as film directors do
23. The purpose of the passage is to_______.
A. call on different understandings of old books
B. focus on the mental health benefits of reading
C. bring awareness to the significance of re-reading
D. introduce the effective ways of re-reading old books
For the casual visitor, Teller Lake in Boulder, Colorado looks like a delightful fishbowl filled with thousands of beautiful orange, black, and white goldfish floating around. However, to the Colorado Parks and Wildlife Department they are a group of invasive species that could end up disturbing the lake’s entire ecosystem if not removed soon.
The problem lies in the fact that these fish have no enemies. This allows them to reproduce and multiply in large numbers. In fact, the 3, 000-4, 000 specimens currently floating around are all a result of a few unwanted pet goldfish that were thrown into the lake. From the age of the fish, they guess the incident occurred about three years ago.
As this non-native species grow in numbers, they compete with the existing fish for food sources like plankton(浮游生物) and small insects. Given that there is only a limited supply of resources, this could result in the goldfish overpowering the native fish species. In the case of Teller Lake, the officials are particularly worried that the goldfish will move downstream and affect the population of some of the endangered native species that live there. Another major cause for concern is the diseases the goldfish may be bringing. This could be deadly to the native species since they do not have the immunity to fight new illnesses.
Of course, fish are not the only unwanted pets. Florida has been fighting an invasion of Burmese pythons since the1980’s and green iguanas since the mid-1990’s. However, one of the worst cases of invasive species recorded is that of the Red Lionfish. Accidentally released in the Atlantic by an aquarium, it is currently damaging the Atlantic Ocean’s ecosystem all the way from South Florida to Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina.
According to experts, the best way to deal with unwanted fish or any other animal is to get advice from the people that originally sold them the pet. However, saving one pet often results in destroying the area’s ecosystem and hurting other innocent animals.
24. Why are biologists worried about goldfish?
A. They may carry new fatal illnesses.
B. They may eat up the native fish.
C. They may come into the Atlantic.
D. They may be treated as pet goldfish.
25. Which species has made the worst effect on the ecosystem?
A. The goldfish.
B. The Red Lionfish.
C. The green iguanas.
D. The Burmese pythons.
26. What is the main idea of the passage?
A. The invasive fish bring diseases to America.
B. The fish are destroying the ecosystem in America.
C. The goldfish invade a Colorado lake’s ecosystem.
D. The non-native fish live in American’s Great Lakes.
The northern arm of the Rocky Mountains is sometimes called“the crown of the continent, ”and its jewels are glaciers and snowfields that irrigate large parts of North America during spring thaw.
Moist air from the Pacific hits the mountains and falls as snow and ice. The mountains hold that water until spring. Then it melts and runs through the gravel valleys and across big parts of North America. It’s worked that way for long. But lately, Hauer says, Montana is warmer, and spring’s melt starts earlier. “When that happens, all that storage of snow and water in the high country will go through the mountains and valleys much faster, ”he explains. “It’s a change that’s taking place because the snowmelt is occurring earlier. ”Already, scientists have noted the shrinking of the more than two dozen glaciers, as well as the disappearance of some snowfields that once lasted through summer.
Now they’re trying to find out how this affects wildlife. Lednia tumana is a stonefly. It spends part of its life in streams, but only icy streams in these mountains. It eats algae and other tiny organisms in the streams, and other insects and fish eat it. Stoneflies are part of a larger food web. Pull out one string, says Daniel Fagre, and the web starts to come apart.
“In only a few decades, we’re going to lose all the glaciers here,” says Fagre. “And they’ve been persistent on the landscape here for 7, 000 years—so suddenly you are having a profound change in just a few decades, and that’s very difficult for many organisms to adapt to. ”
What’s happening is that as the average temperature increases here, the snow and ice back up the mountain to colder air. Ecologist Clint Muhlfeld says eventually the ice and the insects will run out of mountain. He says, “They’re at the top of the continent—the water tower of the continent—and it’s a squeeze play. ”
Humans have already changed the natural world in ways we couldn’t predict. Climate change is like putting another pair of dice in play.
27. What problem does the Rocky Mountains face?
A. Many glaciers are disappearing quickly.
B. Warming climate causes ice to melt earlier.
C. There is less snow and ice falling here.
D. It receives less wet air from the Pacific.
28. What Clint said suggests that_______.
A. stoneflies need to move out of the mountains
B. stoneflies are cornered in the ice fields
C. stoneflies have nowhere to escape
D. stoneflies have to move up to the mountain top
29. According to Fagre, many organisms_______.
A. find it difficult to live on the glaciers
B. need a few decades to change themselves
C. have been living in the streams for 7, 000 years
D. can’t adapt to changing environment in time
30. The last paragraph of the text means that_______.
A. what changes climate have isn’t sure
B. what you play with can change climate
C. what will happen to climate is unclear
D. what changes climate is still working
Most cars have seat belts as part of their equipment. Seat belts protect drivers and passengers in case of accidents. They also reduce the effect of a crash on the body.
31 Worldwide, the devices have protected up to a million people.
America first recognized the invention of an automobile seat belt in 1849. The government gave a patent to an engineer named Edward Claghorn of New York City so that others would not copy his invention of a safety device. 32 This early version of safety belt was said to include hooks and other attachments for securing the person to a fixed object.
Other inventors followed with different versions of the seat belt. 33 It resulted from the work of a Swedish engineer, Nils Bohlin. His three-point, lap and shoulder seat belt first appeared on cars in Europe 50 years ago.
Nils Bohlin recognized that both the upper and lower body needed to be held securely in place. His invention contained a cloth strap(带子) that was placed across the chest and another strap across the hips. 34
Volvo was the first company to offer the modern seat belt to its cars. This company also provided use of Nils Bohlin’s design to other car-makers.
35 He received a gold medal from the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences in1995. He died in Sweden in 2002.
A. The Swedish engineer won many honors for his seat belt.
B. Claghorn was a promising young engineer with many honors all his life.
C. The design joined the straps next to the hip.
D. There are many companies adopting Nils Bohlin’s invention of the seat belt.
E. Safety experts say that seat belts save thousands of lives a year in America alone.
F. But more than100years passed before the current seat belt was developed.
G. Claghorn called his invention a safety belt.
During my second year of college, I was a part-time waitress in Chicago. I spent most of my time on 36 and as little as possible on conversation. I wasn’t used to talking to unknown people except when taking 37 .
One night, a little old man came in and 38 himself in my section. I took his order and went on my way. But I 39 that he came in week after week and always sat at one of my tables. Slowly, I began having short 40 with him. His name was Mr Rodgers, but he 41 that I call him Don. I learned that he and his wife had gone to dinner and a movie every Saturday. Since she had died, he 42 the tradition alone.
As the weeks went on, I began to sit and 43 talk with Don. We talked about his wife, his days 44 in the war, his son who had grown up and also served as a pilot in the army. Eventually, we began to talk about my 45 —going to school, my new boyfriend and the expectation of my future.
About four months after meeting him, I received 46 from a nurse telling me that Don was in hospital. He was 47 complications(并发症)from a heart operation. I 48 drove to the hospital to see him. The first thing he did was thank me for 49 him to visit the doctor. At first I didn’t know what he was 50 . Then I remembered that about three weeks earlier, Don was 51 about chest pains and I gave him the number of a 52 I know.
A nurse asked, “Are you his daughter?” and I replied, “No, I’m his 53 . ”
54 can become good friends. I recently found it 55 to talk to customers at the restaurant and I have had a lot more fun.
36. A. school B. work C. cinema D. home
37. A. orders B. notes C. advice D. clothes
38. A. raised B. greeted C. seated D. balanced
39. A. realized B. wondered C. understood D. noticed
40. A. examinations B. conversations C. preparations D. competitions
41. A. ordered B. believed C. refused D. insisted
42. A. called off B. left out C. carried on D. dealt with
43. A. actually B. helplessly C. obviously D. hopefully
44. A. escaping B. working C. wandering D. flying
45. A. ambition B. identity C. occupation D. hobby
46. A. an article B. a bill C. an offer D. a call
47. A. treating B. experiencing C. studying D. observing
48. A. immediately B. eventually C. frequently D. deliberately
49. A. forcing B. forbidding C. urging D. inviting
50. A. going through B. setting aside C. referring to D. making up
51. A. arguing B. complaining C. discussing D. thinking
52. A. doctor B. dentist C. lawyer D. manager
53. A. student B. waitress C. niece D. secretary
54. A. Relatives B. Colleagues C. Neighbors D. Strangers
55. A. unbelievable B. possible C. enjoyable D. reasonable
“Remember, your father is only one year 56. _______(old)than you.” That was Mum’s usual excuse when Dadsaid the wrong words or did something 57._______(fool).
Dad quitted drinking exactly one year before I was born. He joined a group of other people. He said they 58. _______(stop)drinking, too. I loved my dad 59. _______I hated the way his weekly meetings took him away 60. _______me. It seemed that they were more important to 61. _______than I was. But with my birthday coming up I thought Dad would make an exception. “Can’t you miss it just this time? Saturday is my birthday!” I begged him but 62. _______(refuse). He said “I am chairing the meeting this Saturday. We will have your party on Sunday.”
Saturday evening I sat on my bed, 63. _______(feel)sorry for myself. Dad started to leave, then paused and said, “Why not come with me together tonight? It’s an open meeting. All are welcome. ” 64. _______would I do at a meeting? But maybe I needed to see why something Dad every week mattered so much.
After we arrived, Dad announced the theme of the meeting was going to be gratitude. He told his story about giving up smoking. Later, a man 65. _______(call)Dave also told his story. Only then did I know it was Dad that saved his life from drinking. Showing up week after week and meeting with people, Dad was changing lives. Shame washed over me.
1.词数 100 词左右；
Speaking two languages can actually help offset some effects of aging on the brain, a new study has found.
Researchers tested how long it took participant to switch from one cognitive(认知的) task to another, something that’s known to take longer for older adults, said lead researcher, Brian Gold, an expert at the University of Kentucky. “It has big implications these days because our population is aging more and more,” Gold said. “Seniors are living longer, and that’s a good thing, but it’s only a good thing to the extent that their brains are healthy.” Gold’s team compared task-switching speeds for younger and older adults, knowing they would find slower speeds in the older population because of previous studies. However, they found that older adults who spoke two languages were able to switch mental gears(齿轮) faster than those who didn’t.
First, Gold and his team asked 30 people, who were either bilingual(双语的) or monolingual, to look at a series of colored shapes and respond with the name of each shape by pushing a button. Then, they presented the participants with a similar series of colored shapes and asked them to respond with what colors the shapes were by pushing a button. The bilingual people were able to respond faster to the shifting prompts.
Researchers then gathered more people for a second experiment: 20 bilinguals and 20 monolinguals. This time, researchers used FMRI scans to monitor brain activity during the same shape and color identifying tasks. Gold and his team found that bilingual people had different brain activity than their monolingual peers.
“Learning a second language in childhood was thought of as harmful,” Gold said. “Actually, it’s beneficial.”