It is said that a great many things about languages are mysterious, and many will always be so. But some things we do know.
Firstly, we know that all human beings have a language of some kind. There is no race of men anywhere on earth so backward that it has no language, no set of speech sounds by which the people communicate with one another. In historical times, there has never been a race of men without a language.
Secondly, there is no such thing as a primitive language. There are many people whose cultures are underdeveloped, who are, as we say, uncivilized, but the languages they speak are not primitive. In all known languages we can see complexities that must have been tens of thousands of years in developing.
This has not always been well understood; indeed, the direct contrary has often been stated. Popular ideas of the language of the American Indians will illustrate. Many people have guessed that the Indians communicated in a very primitive system of noises. Study has proved this to be nonsense. There are, or were, hundreds of American Indian languages, and all of them turn out to be very complicated and very old. They are certainly different from the languages that most of us are familiar with, but they are no more primitive than English and Greek.
A third thing we know about language is that all languages are perfectly adequate. This means each one is a perfect means of expressing the culture of the people who speak the language.
Finally, we know that language changes. It’s natural and normal for language to change; the only languages which do not change are the dead ones. This is easy to understand if we look backward in time. Change goes on in all aspects of language. Grammatical features change as do speech sounds and changes in vocabulary are sometimes very extensive and may occur very rapidly. Vocabulary is the least stable part of any language.
21. In the second paragraph the author thinks that_______.
A. some backward races don’t have a language of their own
B. some races in history didn’t possess a language of their own
C. any human race, whether backward or not, has a language
D. some races on earth can communicate without a language
22. As the author says, people of underdeveloped cultures can have _______ languages.
A. complicated B. uncivilized
C. primitive D. well-known
23. American Indian languages are mentioned to prove that they are_______.
A. as fully developed as some well-known languages
B. more primitive than some well-known languages
C. more complex than some well-known languages
D. just as primitive as some well-known languages
In 1974, I graduated from Skyline High School in Oakland, a student with low SAT scores. Allowed to send my results to three colleges, I chose M. I. T. and Villanova, knowing such fine schools would never accept a student like me. I couldn’t afford university fee anyway. I finally went to Chabot, a community college in nearby Hayward, because it accepted everyone and was free.
For thousands of students, Chabot was our Columbia University. The college had a nursing program that churned out graduates, sports teams, and parking for a few thousand cars—all free but for the effort and the cost of used textbooks.
Classmates included soldiers, middle-aged women and men who are desirous to improve their jobs. We could get our general education requirements at Chabot that we could go on to a university. I was able to go on to the State University in Sacramento and study no other subject but my major, theater arts.
A public speaking class was unforgettable for a couple of reasons. First, the homework forced us to get over our self-consciousness. Second, another student was a stewardess. She was studying communications and was very beautiful. She lived not far from me, and she offered me a lift to class.
In Herb Kennedy’s Drama in Performance, I read plays like “The Hot L Baltimore” and “Desire Under the Elms,” then saw them in the theatre. I got to see the plays, through student rush tickets. Those plays filled my head with dreams. I got an A.
President Obama hopes to make two years of free community college accessible for up to nine million Americans. I’m guessing the new Congress will squawk at the $60 billion price tag, but I hope the idea sticks, because more veterans, from Iraq and Afghanistan this time, as well as another generation of mothers, single parents and workers who have been out of the job market, need lower obstacles between now and the next chapter of their lives. High school graduates without the finances for a higher education can postpone taking on big loans and maybe luck into the class that will redefine their life’s work. Many lives will be changed.
Chabot College is still in Hayward, though some teachers are no longer there. I drove past the college a few years ago with one of my kids and summed up my two years there this way: “That place made me what I am today.”
24. Why did the writer finally go to Chabot College?
A. Because he was too poor to afford university fee.
B. Because he graduated from Skyline High School.
C. Because he didn’t want to study in fine schools.
D. Because Chabot College is a famous university.
25.The underlined words “are desirous” in the third paragraph can be replaced by_______.
A. want B. refuse C. remember D. continue
26.The writer wrote the passage to_______.
A. prove community colleges are the best
B. prove he is a fine student at college
C. show his respect for his teachers
D. show his thanks to Chabot College
A Finnish city is handing out “survival packs” to new arrivals to its universities and colleges, taking inspiration from the country’s famous baby starter boxes. The city of Lahti has packaged up a selection of essentials for new students, helped by contributions from local businesses, national broadcaster Yle reports. More than
1, 000 students have received one of the packs so far. And just like the parcels given to pregnant mothers across the country, Lahti’s offering comes in a cardboard box.
Among the items new students will find inside is a bus pass for trips around the city, some locally produced sheets and socks, and a pack of porridge, Yle says. Students can also put in the popular Nordic snack salmiakki. The survival pack is meant to introduce students to the delights of Lahti while also serving as a marketing opportunity for businesses in the city. “There has been some swapping going on, ”says Rosberg from Lahti University of Applied Sciences, adding that someone was willing to swap their porridge for some ice hockey tickets. Ms Rosberg adds that other cities have also been in touch to enquire about the packs.
While Yle reports that students have been giving the box various reviews, local newspaper Etela has a few ideas for some useful additions. After 900 reports of bicycle thefts in Lahti last year, the paper thinks a bike lock would be pretty handy. And because of many students’ fondness for a drink, they suggest a bottle of orange juice is included as a guaranteed cure for drunkenness.
27. What would be the best title of the passage?
A. Survival packs for new students
B. Boxes for baby starters
C. Lahti’s gift for new comers
D. Directions for new comers
28. What are “survival packs” expected to do for the students?
A. Help set up businesses.
B. Provide job opportunities.
C. Serve as a trip guide.
D. Bring along the city’s delights.
29. Rosberg tells us that_______.
A. the items are not always the same
B. everyone would like to change the items
C. porridge won’t be in the packs any more
D. other cities have followed Lahti’s example
30. What is the main idea of the last paragraph?
A. A bike lock must be included.
B. Students give different opinions.
C. New items are recommended.
D. A bottle of orange juice is a must.
Pubs have been the cornerstone of British society for hundreds of years: Over the years, British pubs have developed many traditions. Had you visited a pub in the 1990s, you might have noticed the ringing of the bell around 11 pm, signaling that the pub was about to close. 31
During World War Ⅰ, the British Government decided that pubs must close at nine thirty in the evening(later to change to 11 pm). 32 Ringing a bell was a clear signal to let everyone know that the pub was about to close.
33 Before that depending on what kind of entertainment a place offered, there was a different license, for example, a cinema needed a different license from a theater, a pub needed a different license from a night cafe. The different licenses that existed at the time were combined into one. Additionally, every three years the person responsible for the pub had to renew his license which was valid for only one location, this period of validity was extended to ten years and also the license was able to transfer from one location to another. 34 It also became much easier and cheaper for owners to put on entertainment such as music bands. Cutting down on needless paperwork was predicted to save 1. 97 billion pounds over ten years! One of the biggest effects, however, was that ninety years after the 11 pm closing time was introduced. Pubs were able to decide when they would close. 35
A. Therefore, it became easier to apply for and process applications.
B. This was to minimize the risk of tired workers and potential loss in productivity.
C. British troops were fighting fierce battles with their enemies.
D. They can have more flexibility in terms of opening hours.
E. How did this come about?
F. Do you want to visit a British pub?
G. Later, however, there was a major shake-up in the licensing laws.
I got a guitar for my birthday, and since then I have been struggling. It’s kind of sad. To be honest, it is 36 how many problems are caused by such little things in the life of a teenager. It has awakened another side of myself 37 me. And it couldn’t have happened at a worse time.
I’m a senior, I’m going to 38 soon and I know what college I’m going to. And now I have to deal with this little voice in my head constantly 39 me that I’m going to be a rock star, not a scientist.
A few weeks ago I was given the 40 simple task of writing a short story. I sat down to 41 a beautiful work of fiction that would 42 my teacher and classmates. To be honest, this is an area I generally feel very 43 in. I really enjoy it and such writing tasks used to take the 44 amount of time.
So I was 45 to write my story, and across the room lay my beautiful birthday present. “Once upon a time,” I wrote. Then I stopped, 46 in my chair, and stared for a moment at the 47 . Its dark red paint was 48 and I could see my reflection in its perfect surface. And then my reflection started dancing and singing. I wasn’t 49 , but it sure was. I’d follow its 50 . So I seized my guitar and plucked(拨动)a string. I sat rocking with my guitar until late 51 the night. I was sure I was preparing for the 52 much more efficiently now that I wasn’t spending time writing stories.
Needless to say, no story was written, and many 53 arose in my mind. Since then, I have constantly asked, “Am I 54 for not wanting to do my work anymore?” More importantly, 55 , I’ve learned I am really going to be a rock star.
36. A. interesting B. exciting C. disappointing D. surprising
37. A. within B. with C. before D. beyond
38. A. work B. write C. graduate D. retire
39. A. teaching B. advising C. reminding D. fooling
40. A. actually B. seemingly C. obviously D. partly
41. A. plan B. create C. carry D. continue
42. A. frustrate B. amuse C. astonish D. admire
43. A. happy B. rich C. fortunate D. strong
44. A. least B. most C. largest D. best
45. A. trying B. helping C. refusing D. learning
46. A. seated B. edited C. turned D. digested
47. A. paper B. instrument C. floor D. desk
48. A. running B. shining C. deepening D. fading
49. A. playing B. dreaming C. moving D. repeating
50. A. lead B. music C. speed D. rule
51. A. of B. at C. for D. into
52. A. university B. life C. future D. exam
53. A. doubts B. fears C. discussions D. problems
54. A. curious B. clever C. normal D. alone
55. A. therefore B. though C. otherwise D. even
How many of us can really ever thank our mothers 56. _______what they do for us? I am now 40 years old, so it’s been a lot of years that I’ve had my mom’s loving 57. _______(guide)and direction behind me pushing me 58. _______(gentle)when I need it.
When I was ill, mom would take care of me unconditionally. When I had a terrible dream, she would never yell at me for stealing into her bed. When I
59. _______(graduate)from college, she took pride in me as I walked across that stage. When life would get me down, she would tell me that it’s always dark
60. _______the dawn. She’s always been my greatest support, 61. ______(keep)me up when life tried to defeat me. She never told me that anything was
62. _______(possible)or that I set my goals too high. With a gentle guiding hand she got me back on the right track if I faltered(摇晃).
A simple thank you will never be enough for the kindness and love she
63. _______(show)to me over the years. My mom deserves more than flowers, candies or 64. _______gifts. There isn’t a gift in the world that could ever express my thanks for 65. _______she has done for me over the years.
阅读下面短文, 根据所给情节进行续写, 使之构成一个完整的故事。
One morning, Ann’s neighbor Tracy found a lost dog wandering around the local elementary school. It was a beautiful dog, which attracted Tracy a lot. So Tracy thought the owner of the dog must have been worried about it and looked for it around. She was a warm-hearted woman, so she decided to help the lost dog. In no time, she asked Ann if she could keep an eye on the dog. Ann said that she could watch it only for the day.
Tracy took photos of the dog and printed off 400 FOUND flyers(传单), and put them in mailboxes. Meanwhile, Ann went to the dollar store and bought some pet supplies, warning her two sons not to fall in love with the dog. At the time, Ann’s son Thomas was 10 years old, and Jack, who was recovering from a heart operation, was 21 years old.
Four days later Ann was still looking after the dog, which they had started to call Riley. They began to love the dog, which was so clever and cute that every member of the family loved it. One day, when Ann arrived home from work, the dog threw itself against the screen door and barked madly at her. As soon as she opened the door, Riley dashed into the boys’ room where Ann found Jack suffering from a heart attack. Riley ran over to Jack, but as soon as Ann bent over to help him the dog went silent.
“If it hadn’t come to get me, the doctor said Jack would have died, ”Ann reported to a local newspaper. At this point, no one had called to claim the dog, so Ann and their sons decided to keep it.
3. 续写部分分为两段, 每段开头语已为你写好;
4. 续写完成后, 请用下画线标出你所使用的关键词语。
However, the next morning Tracy got a call.
Peter drove to Ann’s house to pick up his dog, . . .