Once there lived a rich man 31 wanted to do something for the people of his town. 32 first he wanted to find out whether they deserved his help.
In the centre of the main road into the town, he placed 33 very large stone. Then he 34 (hide ) behind a tree and waited. Soon an old man came along with his cow.
“Who put this stone in the centre of the road?” said the old man, but he did not try to remove the stone. Instead, with some difficulty he passed around the stone and continued on his way. 35 man came along and did the same thing; then another came ,and another. All of them complained about the stone but not tried to remove 36 . Late in the afternoon a young man came along. He saw the stone, 37 (say) to himself: “The night 38 (be) very dark. Some neighbors will come along later in the dark and will fall against the stone.”
Then he began to move the stone. He pushed and pulled with all his 39 (strong) to move it. How great was his surprise at last! 40 the stone, he found a bag of money.
Getting rid of dirt, in the opinion of most people, is a good thing. However, there is nothing fixed about attitudes to dirt.
In the early 16th century, people thought that dirt on the skin was a means to block out disease, as medical opinion had it that washing off dirt with hot water could open up the skin and let ills in. A particular danger was thought to lie in public baths. By 1538, the French king had closed the bath houses in his kingdom. So did the king of England in 1546. Thus began a long time when the rich and the poor in Europe lived with dirt in a friendly way. Henry IV, King of France, was famously dirty. Upon learning that a nobleman had taken a bath, the king ordered that, to avoid the attack of disease, the nobleman should not go out.
Though the belief in the merit (好处) of dirt was long-lived, dirt has no longer been regarded as a nice neighbor ever since the 18 century. Scientifically speaking, cleaning away dirt is good to health. Clean water supply and hand washing are practical means of preventing disease. Yet, it seems that standards of cleanliness have moved beyond science since World War II. Advertisements repeatedly sell the idea: clothes need to be whiter than white, cloths ever softer, surfaces to shine. Has the hate for dirt, however, gone too far?
The Internet is an amazing information resource. Students, teachers, and researchers use it as __31_ investigative tool. Journalists use it to find information for stories. Doctors use it to learn more about unfamiliar diseases and the 32_ (late) medical development. Ordinary people use it for shopping, banking, bill-paying, and communicating with family and friends. People all over the world use it to connect with individuals from _33 countries and cultures. However, __34____there are many positive developments __35__ (connect) with the Internet, there are also certain fears and concerns. __36___ concern relates to a lack of control over__37__ appears on the Internet. With television and radio there are editors to check the accuracy or appropriateness of the content of programs, and with television there are 38 (restrict) on what kinds of programs can __39__ (broadcast) and at what times of the day. With the Internet, parents cannot check a published guide to determine what is suitable __40____ their children to see.
Cheating is on the rise in US schools． In a recent survey of high school students in the United States, 74 percent admitted that they had cheated, or helped someone else cheat on a test． Students place the blame for this phenomenon（现象）on society． Consider the view of this high school junior from Massachusetts, “To be successful in the world today must cut corners, cheat． Everybody cheats． Just not everybody gets caught．”The other students’ view is even more telling,“In the real world, people cheat all of the time． And when you are in a competitive environment, you do what it takes to win, whether it be cheating or whatever”． While students have cheated for generations, the ease with which they are able to justify（证明）their behavior by blaming it on others is a more recent and worrisome phenomenon． Of course, many of these attitudes are not new． What is worrisome is that students see education as a hurdle（障碍）that needs to be crossed to get to the next level, whether that’s earning a diploma（文凭），gaining admission to college or getting a job interview． But the future is not all hopeless． In high schools, an increasing number of students and faculty（老师）are taking action． Students who are willing to work hard and be honest are becoming frustrated（受挫的）with the lack of response to high level of cheating． So are teachers who truly care about what their students learn． In others, someone has heard about the successful efforts of another school．
Crying marriage? 31 (surprise), isn’t it? Factually, the custom of crying marriage existed a long time ago in many areas of Southwest China’s Sichuan Province, and 32 (remain) in fashion 33 the end of the Qing Dynasty. Though not so popular as before, the custom is still observed by people in many places, especially Tujia people, who view it as a 34 (necessary) to marriage procedure.
It is very much 35 same in different places of the province. According to elderly people, every bride had to cry at the wedding. 36 , the bride’s neighbors would look down upon 37 as a poorly cultivated girl and she would become the laughingstock of the village. In fact, there were cases 38 which the bride was beaten by her mother for not crying at the wedding ceremony.
In a word, crying at wedding is a 39 by custom to set off the happiness of the wedding through falsely sorrowful words. However, in the 40 (arrange) marriages of the old days of China, there were indeed quite a lot of brides who cried over their unsatisfactory marriage and even their miserable life.
As I got into a taxi one afternoon, the driver was very angry about something that had happened to him earlier that day. Here’s how he told the story:
“One of my fares (旅客) left a wallet in my cab this morning. Nearly three hundred dollars in it. I spent more than an hour trying to trace the guy. Finally I found him at his hotel. He took the wallet without a word and glared at me as though I’d meant to steal it.”
“He didn’t give you a reward?” I asked.
“Not a cent. But it wasn’t the money I wanted,” he fumbled, then exploded, “If the guy had only said something…”
Why was the driver so upset? All he wanted was something simple, but even more valuable than money: to be thanked for his efforts. In short, what he wanted, what he needed but did not get, was a little bit of gratitude.
In order to know a foreign language thoroughly, four things are neccessary. Firstly, we must understand the language when we hear ______31________ spoken.. Secondly, we must be able to speak it correctly with confidence and without hesitation. _____32_______ ,we must be able to read the language , and fourthly, we must be able to write it. We must be able to make sentences that are grammatically correct.
There is no easy way to success _____33_______ language learning. _____34________ good memory is of great help, but it is not enough only _____35________(memorize) rules from a grammar book. It is not much use learning by heart long list of words and ______36_________meaning, studying the dictionary and so on. We must learn by using the language. _______37_______we are satisfied with only a few rules we have memorized, we are not really learning the language. “Learn through use” is a good piece of _____38______(advise) for those ______39______are studying a new language. Practice is important. We must practise speaking and ____40____(write) the language whenever we can.
Almost everyone knows that water covers three-fourths of the earth’s surface .Most of it ,however ,is in the oceans and is too salty to drink . Also ,some of it is frozen and cannot be used . In fact ,less than one percent is left for the use of people ,animals and plant life.
All through history men have tried to build their homes near the sources of fresh water .Now fresh water is becoming scarce ,but more and more is needed because of the increasing number of people in the world .Some industries also use large amounts of fresh water in the production of things such as steel ,petroleum ,paper and rubber and so on.
Scientists estimate that the need for fresh water will have doubled by the year 2003. If they are correct ,we must find new ways of saving it or producing it. Some nations have worked on the problem and are already sharing their information with others. They are trying to keep their rivers from becoming polluted .Deep wells are also being dug ,and rain water is being collected in huge artificial lakes .In one way or another ,they hope to provide enough water to satisfy the needs of their people.
At one point along an open highway, I came to a crossroads with a traffic light. I was alone on the road by now, but 31 I drove up to the light, it turned red, and I braked to a halt. I look left, right, and behind me. Nothing. 32 a car, no suggestion of headlights, but there I sat, 33 (wait) the light to change, the only human being for at least a mile in any direction.
I started wondering 34 I refused to run the light. I was not afraid of 35 (catch) by the police, because there was obviously no cop anywhere around and 36 certainly would have been no danger in going 37 it. Much later that night, the 38 question of why I’d stopped for that light came 39 to me. I think I stopped because it’s part of a contract (合同) we all have with each other. It’s not only the law, but it’s an agreement we have, and we trust each other to honor 40 : we don’t go through red lights. Like most of us, I’m more ready to be stopped from doing something bad by the social agreement that disapproves of it than by any law against it.
b. 概要写作：阅读下面短文， 根据其内容写一篇60词左右的内容概要。
Is there a way to turn back the clock on your age? A new study says yes. Exercise can make you younger. At least it can lower your fitness age — that is the measure of how well your body works. A study of athletes in the National Senior Games found that their fitness age was more than 20 years younger than their chronological age. The games took place in the Midwestern state of Minnesota. Ziyuanku.comTony Diamond participated in the games. Every morning he goes to a local park and walks fast for an hour. Then, the retired navy captain runs for an hour. Two or three times a week, he goes to a gym for muscle training. Mr. Diamond won three medals at the 2015 National Senior Games, in the road race and the race walk for his age group -- 85 to 89. "My current age is 86 years old, and my fitness age is 44. "I think I have such a good number because I did a lot of exercise during my life. I have been exercising since I was a little boy." Helen White is a basketball player. She also teaches the sport to senior groups. And she plays pickleball. Pickleball uses a raquet and is part badminton, tennis and table tennis. She won a silver medal in pickleball at the 2013 National Senior Games. "I'm 62 years old and my fitness results showed that I was 32 years." Ms. White and Mr. Diamond are some of the 5,000 Senior Games participants who took part in the fitness age study.