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高考英语七选五阅读解题专题技能

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高考英语七选五阅读解题专题技能
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高考  英语专题复习  七选五阅读

答题指导

一)题型解读:

试题模式:给出一篇缺少5个句子的文章,对应有七个选项,要求同学们根据文章结构、内容,选出正确的句子,填入相应的空白处。


考查重点:主要考查考生对文章的整体内容和结构以及上下文逻辑意义的理解和掌握。(考试说明)


选项特点:主旨概括句(文章整体内容)

                 过渡性句子(文章结构)

                 注释性句子(上下文逻辑意义)

根据试题所在位置确定不同的解题策略 

1)如果问题在段首 

    通常是段落主题句。认真阅读后文内容,根据段落一致性原则,查找同义词或其他相关的词,推断出主题句。关注每段首尾句,了解大意知主题

 2)如果空格出现在段中,这时要根据空格前后的句子意思、备选选项的句子意思以及句子之间的逻辑关系来确定答案

3)如果问题在段尾 

   通常是结论、概括性语句。注意在选项中查找表示结果、结论、总结等的信号词,如therefore, as a result, thus, hence, in short, to sum up, to conclude, in a word等词语,选项中也可发现前文的同义词句。


 Key words

动词 序数词

序数词 连词

代词 副词also

时间 

structures

标题:大写,较短,结合全文

段首:根括文段

段尾:总结,承上启下

段中:承上启下

小标题

短小精悍 (多为名词性短语、祈使句)

七选五阅读理解题的解题技巧:

速读全文,关注每段首尾句,了解大意知主题

◆浏览选项,理解全篇逻辑关系,找出关键词

◆运用上下文所重复的关键词推断    

◆利用同义词和近义词关系    

◆利用词的上下义关系   

◆利用反义词、过渡词关系   

◆理清结构,确定答案,最后再来顺一遍


篇章结构类

根据试题所在位置确定不同的解题策略 

1)如果问题在段首 

    通常是段落主题句。认真阅读后文内容,根据段落一致性原则,查找同义词或其他相关的词,推断出主题句。关注每段首尾句,了解大意知主题

2)如果问题在段尾 

   通常是结论、概括性语句。注意在选项中查找表示结果、结论、总结等的信号词,如therefore, as a result, thus, hence, in short, to sum up, to conclude, in a word等词语,选项中也可发现前文的同义词句。


主旨概括句(文章整体内容)

1.标题型 —— 短小精悍 (多为名词性短语、祈使句)

2. 首句型

1) 首段首句文章主题,首尾呼应

2) 中间段首句  总结下文—— 本段主题

                      靠上下文承接做题

3)末段首句   文章主题,首尾呼应



Ex.10   _____ Every day ,when she comes back home from work, she sets about doing housework, sweeping the living room and bedrooms or cleaning the furniture, and putting everything in order. She seems to be busy all the time. … Mother never buys expensive dresses for herself, but she often buys some inexpensive but high quality clothes for us.

  A. she enjoys listening to class music.

  B. She never goes to expensive restaurants to enjoy meals.

  C. My mother is hard—working and never wastes money.

  D. As a mother she takes good care of us and gives us every comfort.


实战演习

Part II 

 Passage 1

__________________

Universities in Britain are a magnet for overseas students. There are currently over 200 000 from outside Britain studying at British universities. The largest single group is Chinese students. There are currently 50 000 in the UK. 

A.Universities in the UK

B.It is very simple to become an international student in the UK

C.Scholarships in Universities


Passage 2


___________When a person does a certain thing again, he is impelled(迫使) by some unseen force to do the same thing repeatedly; thus a habit is formed. Once a habit is formed, it is difficult, and sometimes impossible, to get rid of .

A.It is very important for us to know why we should get used to good habits.

B.Habits, whether good or bad, are gradually formed.

C.Whether good or not habits are , they are easy to get rid of .


Passage 3

Nowadays in China, parents care about their children’s education more than anything else. They spend a lot coaching(训练) their children in their studies. Some even hire teachers for their children. Many have their children sent to after-class schools.____.

A.It seems as if a better education is all that parents expect for their children.

B.Skills and knowledge means competition.

C.Skills and knowledge doesn’t mean all.


Passage 4

Not all past predictions have been proved wrong. ______ Some great thinkers predicted the arrival of the credit card, the fax machine and even the internet ----years before they happened.

A.Predictions of the Future

B.A few of them have been surprisingly accurate.

C. It hasn’t appear yet.


Passage 5

Learning another language isn’t easy, ……

      _____

 Language learning is cumulative(积累): you cannot put it off until weekend.

Distribute your study time 

 Study a different task each time: vocabulary now , grammar next.etc.

A. Study every day .

B. If you’re asked to listen, practice listening.

C. So you’ll at least have looked at it all.



1. ___________

       Today, there are hundreds of different types of rock music, and almost every country has its own form of rock music. There is “heavy metal” which is very loud with hard rhythms, “rap” that developed on the streets of New York, “disco”, a type of soft rock music for dancing... and many more.


2. ___________

       Rock and roll came from jazz and blues during the 1950s. One of the first very famous rock and roll singers was Elvis Presley. Now, almost every country has many rock and roll bands and singers. Some performers call their music by different names, like rap or punk.


3. ___________

       The music that most people like to sing and play today is called popular music. This includes the songs that you hear on the radio, in movies, and on TV. Some of the most popular kinds of music now are rock and roll and the country western music.


4. ___________

       Country music known as country western music has a long history. It comes from the folk songs of immigrants(移民) from Britain. Country music uses simple music and words to express everyday feelings such as loneliness, love and sadness. 


5. ___________

      Country music became popular first among cowboys in the American western countryside. Cowboys used to sing peaceful and beautiful songs to calm animals and get over their own fear. In recent years, many musicians have made country western music a little different from the music in the past. These changes make the songs sound even better.

Choose the right topic for each paragraph according to the passage. One of them is not useful.


A. Rock and roll

 B. What today’s rock music is like 

 C. What popular music is

 D. The changes of country music

 E. Traditional folk music

 F. What country music is


细节类型

1)词汇复现法

复现,是保证文章前后衔接而经常使用的一种写作手段,即作者在文章上下文不同的位置对同一个概念进行重复描述。复现关系,主要是指同义词复现、近义词复现、反义词复现等。

   双保险:上下文再核实一下

Part I

Passage 2


__________The image includes the way you look, the way you act, the way you talk and the way you think. Interestingly, our self-images are often quite different from the images others hold about us. 

A.Always love yourself. 

B.Self-image is your own mind’s picture of yourself.

C.Don’t allow doubts to occur in it .


Ex1 …By 2020,Dr. David Davis believes ,car technology will give motorists a clear view of the road, whatever the weather conditions, by projecting an image of the road ahead on to the car’s windscreen._______ Cars will be connected by an electronic tow bar(牵引杠)to the car in front to form “road—trains”.

A.Every driver will use less fuel in the car he owns.

B.The car will automatically speed up, or slow down, to match the speed of the car in front.

C.And it will not be owned by one individual.

D.And by 2030,cars will travel in line, linked to each other electronically.


2)词汇同现法

  词汇同现是指属于同一词汇或者跟此词汇相关同一领域的词汇在文章中共同出现,达到语义衔接的目的。你可以在选项中找到与此词汇最接近的词,从而达到快而准。一般来说,上下文中词汇联系越接近,上下文的衔接关系越紧密(如: 


Surround yourself with happy people. It is easy to begin to think negatively when you are surrounded by people who think that way. ________

A. There are some tips in life that lead to happiness.

B. Being overweight or not eating nutritious foods can have a negative effect on your mood.

C. On the contrary, if you are around people who are happy, their emotional state will be infectious.


Ex2….half of shoppers refused to queue for more than five minutes in a high street shop.

   The Internet, which allows shoppers to buy more goods, with just a click of the mouse, is one of the reason why people’s patience appears to be thin._________

A. It was typical in the past.

B. But it would seem we are no longer prepared to wait in line.

C. More people prefer to click the mouse for shopping at home

D. As a result, food and drink sellers are. having to find new ways to deliver good customer service.


Ex3…On the other hand ,the advantages of going overseas may include day-to- day opportunities to learn a new culture, meet new friends with whom you can use and practice the language, and chances to see different parts of the world. ______Those disadvantages include expense, time away from one’s school, family,…

A.The following are its advantages.

B.However, there may be a number of disadvantages.

C.Consider a distance education.

D.Most of us are adapted to studying at school.


3)代词线索


  英语表达中代词出现的频率极高,代词的作用无非是指代前面提及的名词或形容词概念,巧妙利用这样的指代关系和根据代词的单复数差异可以准确而快速地解题。


Improved thinking abilities will help them to understand more both in academic sense and in as an individual. Always love yourself. 

A.Thinking is a skill.

B.Creative thinking techniques can develop children’s mind.

C.Thinking is a tool, and it is something that can be sharpened.


_________ They give more background and details. They also let you read parts that are important to you and skip the rest. 

A.Both television and the Internet have many disadvantages.

B.Other high-tech timesavers have similar disadvantages.

C.Newspapers and magazines have some important advantages.


Ex4._________It is a very happy day for many boys and girls. Before the terms ends in some schools, the children act a nativity(基督诞生)or “birth” play, showing how Jesus was born in a stable(马厩)。

A. People are often busy going shopping

B. Now the Chinese people also celebrate Christmas.

C. The turkey or chicken is quickly eaten.

D. Christmas Day falls on the twenty—fifty of December.


Ex5. That happens in the 1980s. And, most recently, she says many kinds of people have joined the movement. ________They represent many races, regions and political beliefs.

A.They are mainly rich people

B.Parents choose home—schooling for several reasons.

C.Most often, their parents are their teachers.

D.She says these include rich people and poor people.



4)数字线索


  包括具体数字以及和数字相关的词汇诸如ratio, rate等等。作者列出数字,除了和其他数字进行对比和比较之外,还可以用数据来说明一个观点。


Ex.6 As in China, the weather is different from area to area.___1____  The temperatures can fall to –60℃ ,which is 60℃ below freezing. In the capital, Ottawa  , the average of winter temperature is --10℃,and in summer 21 ℃.___2____ The average January temperature is 3 ℃,and in July it is 18 ℃

A.Canada is famous for the kind of paper which is used for newspapers

B.Canada is the second largest country in the world .

C.The west coast of Canada is the warmest place in winter

D.In the North, the winters are long and hard with snow for six months.

E.For two centuries English and French settlers struggled against each other.


Sixty years ago, people asked about your astrological sign. ________ These days, having a web address is almost as important as a street address.

A.Start simply.

B.Nowadays, they want to know your website.

C.At the top of the page is a banner Graphic.


5)逻辑关系线索

(a)并列与递进关系: and, or, also,neither…nor…,either…or…,likewise, similarly, equally, in the same way, that is to say ,as well as, the same …as, besides, additionally, furthermore, moreover, in addition to ,what is more


(b)因果关系:because, for, since, as, thus, hence, therefore, so, so…that, consequently, accordingly, due to, thanks to, as a result ,because of ,in that, for this reason, of course


(c)转折让步关系:but, however, yet, on the contrary, by contrast,   on the other hand, unfortunately, while, whereas, unlike, rather than ,instead of, it is true that, of course, although, though, even though, even if, nevertheless, despite, in spite of


(d)时间关系:afterwards, at first, at last, finally, first, firstly, in the first place, to start with,in the mean time, last, later, next, second, secondly, then, third, thirdly, to begin with以及一些具体的时间。


Ex.7…_________  Some choose it because of their religious beliefs. Others say it provides more time for the family to be together. They say home offers a better place for learning.  Some parents….

    A. So a number of parents began home-schooling

    B. Home –schooling is not accepted by all the people

    C. Parents choose home –schooling for several reasons

    D. Most often, their parents are their teachers


Ex.8.This could be watching TV or listening to music. Doing some exercises earlier in the day should help you feel physically as well as mentally tired ._______However,

coffee or tea should be avoided as they contain caffeine and will keep you awake….

  A. So, what’s a good sleep?

  B. A bedtime drink can also help

  C. Having a good sleep will keep you lively the whole day.


Ex.9 Taking good notes is a time saving skill that will help you to become a better student in several ways.__________ Second, your notes are excellent materials to refer to when you are studying for a test. Third, note-taking offers….(2008 宁夏.海南卷)

A.Use words, not complete sentences.

B.You must write your notes on separate paper.

C.First, the simple act of writing something down makes it easier for you to understand and remember.

D.There are three practical note-taking methods.


Part I   Passage 6

Psychologists think there may be many reasons why violent games are more harmful to children than violent movies. Firstly, players are actively involved in violence, and may begin to use weapons as second nature._________ 

A. Children are most likely to become addicted to violent videogames.

B. At least 12 murders since 1997 have been linked to an addiction with violent video  games.

C. Secondly, violent games provide repetitive aggressive experiences that are rewarded by more killing.


Passage 7

_______However, the real movie capital is Mumbai, in India. Mumbai used to be known as Bombay, and so the film industry there is called “Bollywood” 

A. Sometimes they even write the script by hand .

B. Most people think that the capital of the movie world is Hollywood, in the United States.

C. They may even shoot scenes for several films on the same day using the same clothes.


Passage 8

It seems urgent, that communications in transport should be improved. ____ All over cities, it seems that people are too tired and too rushed to be polite.

A. Communication between human beings should  also  be kept smooth and polite.

B. Yet this is all too often seen.

C. The public should obey the rules.


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