The next time you go into a bank, a store, or a supermarket, stop and listen. What do you hear? 71 It's similar to the music you listen to, but it's not exactly the same. That's because this music was especially designed to relax you, or to give you extra energy. Sometimes you don't even realize the music is playing, but you react to the music anyway.
Quiet background music used to be called "elevator (电梯) music" because we often heard it in elevators. But lately we hear it in more and more places, and it has a new name "Muzak". About one-third of the people in America listen to "Muzak" everyday. The music plays for 15 minutes at a time, with short pauses in between. It is always more lively between ten and eleven in the morning, and between three and four in the afternoon, when people are more tired. 72
If you listen to Muzak carefully, you will probably recognize the names of many of the songs. Some musicians or songwriters don't want their songs to be used as Muzak, but others are happy when their songs are chosen. Why? 73
Music is often played in public places because it is designed to make people feel less lonely when they are in an airport or a hotel. It has been proven that Muzak does what it is designed to do. Tired office workers suddenly have more energy when they hear the pleasant sound of Muzak in the background. 74 Supermarket shoppers buy 38 percent more groceries.
75 . They say it's boring to hear the same songs all the time. But other people enjoy hearing Muzak in public places. They say it helps them relax and feel calm. One way or another, Muzak affects everyone. Some farmers even say their cows give more milk when they hear Muzak!
A. Some people don't like Muzak.
B. The music gives them extra energy.
C. Music is playing in the background.
D. Factory workers produce 13 percent more.
E. Muzak tends to help people understand music better.
F. They get as much as $4 million a year if their songs are used.
G. Muzak is played in most of the big supermarkets in the world.
I was ten when I first sat with my grandmother behind the cashier(收银台) in her general store. _71__ quickly learned the importance of treating customers politely and saying “thank you.”
At first I was paid in candy. _72_ I worked every day after school, and during the summer and no weekends and holidays from 8 a.m. to 7 p.m. My father helped me set up a bank account. __73__
By the time I was 12, my grandmother thought I had done such a good job that she promoted me to selling cosmetics(化妆品). I developed the ability to look customers directly in the eye. Even though I was just a kid, women would ask me such things as “What color do you think I should wear?” I took a real interest in their questions and was able to translate what they wanted into makeup(化妆) ideas. __74__
The job taught me a valuable lesson: to be a successful salesperson, you didn’t need to be a rocket scientist—you needed to be a great listener. _75___ Except they are no longer women purchasing cosmetics from me; instead, they are kids who tell me which toys they would like to see designed and developed.
A.Later I received 50 cents an hour.
B.Before long, she let me sit there by myself.
C.I ended up selling a record amount of cosmetics.
D.Today I still carry that lesson with me: I listen to customers.
E.My grandma’s trust taught me how to handle responsibility.
F.Soon I found myself looking more beautiful than ever before.
G.Watching my money grow was more rewarding than anything I could have bought.
Public speaking and critical thinking
What is critical thinking ? To a certain degree ,it’s a matter of logic （逻辑）—of being able to spot weaknesses in other people ‘s argument and to avoid them in your own ,it also includes related skills such as distinguishing fact from opinion and assessing the soundness of evidence .
In the broad sense ,critical thinking is focused ,organized thinking –the ability to see clearly their relationships among ideas. 71 the greatest thinkers ,scientists ,and inventors have often taken information that was readily available and put it together differently to produce new ideas. That, too, is critical thinking.
72 As the class goes on, for example, you will probably spend a good deal of time organizing your speeches. While this may seem like a purely mechanical（机械的）exercise, it is closely connected with critical thinking. If the structure of your speech is loose and confused, chances are that your thinking. If the structure of your speech is loose and confused, chances are that your thinking is also discovered and confused. If, on the other hand ,the structure is clear, there is a good chance your thinking is too. Organizing a speech is not a matter of arranging the ideas your already have. 73
What is true of organization is true of many aspects of public speaking. 74 As you work on expressing your ideas in clear, accurate language, you will Improve your ability to think clearly and accurately. 75 As you learn to listen critically to speeches in class. You will be better able to assess the ideas of speakers in a variety of situations.
If you take full advantage of your speech class, you will be able to develop your skills as critical thinker in many circumstances. This is one reason public speaking has been regarded as a vital part of education since the days of ancient Greece.
A, it is an important part of shaping the ideas themselves.
B. This may seem like a lot of time, but the rewards are well worth it.
C. It may also help you to know that there is no such thing as a perfect speech.
D. It has often been said that there are few new ideas in the world, only reorganized ideas.
E. If you are wondering what this has to do with your public speaking class, the answer is quite a lot.
F. The skills you learn in your speech class can help you become a more effective thinker in a number of ways.
G. As you study the role of evidence and reasoning in speechmaking ,you will see how they can be used in other forms of communication as well.
Easy Ways to Keep Your Brain Sharp
Everyone is forgetful, but as we age, we start to feel like our brains are slowing down a bit—and that can be a very annoying thing. 71 Read on for some techniques worth trying.
People who regularly made plans and looked forward to upcoming events had a 50 percent
reduced chance of Alzheimer's disease (早老性痴呆症), according to a recent study.
Something as simple as setting a goal to have a weekly coffee date with a friend will do. There's evidence that people who have a purpose in life or who are working on long or short-term goals appear to do better. In other words, keep your brain looking forward.
2. Go for a walk.[
Mildly raised glucose (葡萄糖) levels can harm the area of the brain that helps you form memories and physical activity can help get blood glucose down to normal levels. In fact, exercise produces chemicals that are good for your brain. 74
3. Learn something new.
Take a Spanish class online, join a drawing club, or learn to play cards. A study found t hat mental stimulation (刺激) limits the weakening effects of aging on memory and the mind. But the best thing for your brain is when you learn something new and are physically active at the same time. 75 Or go dancing with your friends.
A. Focus on the future.
B. This can be especially harmful to the aged.
C. It should be something like learning gardening.
D. So take a few minutes each day to do some reading.
E. But don't worry if your schedule isn't filled with life-changing events.
F. Luckily, research shows there is a lot you can do to avoid those moments.
G. In other words, when you take care of your body, you take care of your brain.
Kids' health: Four steps for fighting stress
Everybody gets stressed time to time. 71 Some ways of dealing with stress 一like screaming or hitting someone一don't solve (解决)，much. But other ways, like talking to someone you trust, can lead you to solving your problem or at least feeling better.
Try taking these four steps. the next time you are stressed:
(1) Get support. When you need help, reach out to the people who care about you. Talk
To “trusted adult, such as “parent or other relatives. 72 They might have had similar problems, such as dealing with a test, or the death of a beloved pet.
(2) Don't take it out on yourself. Sometimes when kids are stressed and upset they take it out on themselves. Oh, dear, that's good idea. Remember that there are always people to help you. Don't take it out on yourself. 73
(3) Try to solve the problem. After you're calm and you have support from adults and friends, it's time to get down to business. 74 Even if you can't solve it all, you can solve a piece of it.
(4) Be positive. Most stress is temporary(暂时的).Remember stress does go away, especially when you figure out the problem and start working on solving it. These steps aren't magic, but they do work. And if you can stay positive as you make
your way through a tough time, you'll help yourself feel better even faster. 75
A. Ask for a helping hand to get you through the tough situation.
B. Notice your friends' feelings and find a way to help them.
C. Different people feel stress in different ways
D. Ah, it feels so good when the stress is gone.
E. You need to figure out what the problem is.
F. And don't forget about your friends.
G. Then, find a way to calm down。
Last year, researchers from the University of Michigan reported that empathy, the ability to understand other people, among college students had dropped sharply over the past 10 years. __71__ Today, people spend more time alone and are less likely to join groups and clubs.
Jennifer Freed, a co-director of a teen program, has another explanation. Turn on the TV, and you’re showered with news and reality shows full of people fighting, competing, and generally treating one another with no respect. __72__
There are good reasons not to follow those bad examples. Humans are socially related by nature. __73__ Researchers have also found that empathetic teenagers are more likely to have high self-respect. Besides, empathy can be a cure for loneliness, sadness, anxiety, and fear.
Empathy is also an indication of a good leader. In fact, Freed says, many top companies report that empathy is one of the most important things they look for in new managers. __74__ “Academics are important. But if you don’t have emotional (情感的) intelligence, you won’t be as successful in work or in your love life,” she says.
What’s the best way to up your EQ (情商）? For starters, let down your guard and really listen to others. __75__
To really develop empathy, you’d better volunteer at a nursing home or a hospital, join a club or a team that has a diverse membership, have a “sharing circle” with your family, or spend time caring for pets at an animal shelter.
A.Everyone is different, and levels of empathy differ from person to person.
B.That could be because so many people have replaced face time with screen time, the researchers said.
C.“One doesn’t develop empathy by having a lot of opinions and doing a lot of talking,” Freed says.
D.Humans learn by example—and most of the examples on it are anything but empathetic.
E.Empathy is a matter of learning how to understand someone else—both what they think and how they feel.
F.Good social skills—including empathy—are a kind of “emotional intelligence” that will help you succeed in many areas of life.
G.Having relationships with other people is an important part of being human—and having empathy is decisive to those relationships.
How to Make Friends
Friendship is a very important human relationship and everyone needs good friends. Good friendship has many benefits. It offers companionship, improves self-worth and promotes good health. There are times in our lives such as when we have recently moved into a new town, or changed our jobs or schools. Such changes often leaves us without a friend 71 . But for many of us the process is difficult and requires courage. Below are some helpful suggestions on how to make and keep friends.
1. Associate with others.
The first step to making friends is associating with other people. You can go to public places to meet new people. Besides, you will need to make yourself known by becoming an active member of such places.
2.Start a conversation
Starting a conversation is the second most important step in making new friends. 72 You can always start the conversation. Being able to make small talk is a very useful skill in relating with other people.
Choosing friends with common interests is important in building friendship as these interests would always bring you and your friend together, Hanging out will always be a pleasant experience.
4.Let it grow.
It is a good thing to stay in touch. However, try not to press your new friend with calls, messages or visits as this would likely wear him or her out and finally you may lose your friend. 74 . The best friendships are the ones that grow naturally.
5.Enjoy your friendship
The best way to enjoy your friendship is to allow your friends to be themselves. 75 Try not to change them from who they are to what you want them to be. Become the kind of friend you will want your friend to be to you.
A. Be cheerful.
B. Do things together.
C. Do not wait to be spoken to.
D. Try not to find fault with your friends.
E. Making new friends comes easy for some people.
F. For a friendship to develop you need to stay in touch.
G. So you will need to give your friend time to react to you.
Business is the organized approach to providing customerswith the goods and services they want. The eord business also refers to an organization that provides these goods and services. Most business seek to make a profit(利润)-that aim to achieve income that is more than the costs of operating the business. 71 Commonly called nonprofits, these organizations are primarily nongovernmental service providers. 72
Business management is a term used to describe the techniques of planning, direction, and control of the operations of a business. 73 One is the establishment (制定)of broad basic policies with respect to production; sales; the purchase of equipment, materials and supplies; and accounting. 74 The third relates to the establishment of standards of word in all departments. Direction is concerned primarily with supervision(监管)and guidance by the management in authority. 75
A. Control includes the use of records and reports to compare actual work with the set standards for work.
B. In this connection there is the difference between top management and operative management.
C. Examples of nonprofit business top management and operative management.
D. However, some businesses only seek to enough to cover their operating costs
E. The second aspect relates to the application of these policies by departments.
F. In the theory of business management, organization has two main aspects.
G Planning in business management has three main aspects.
Until relatively recently, the vast majority of human beings lived and died without ever seeing a city. The first city was probably founded no more than 5,500 years ago. 71 In fact, nearly everyone lived on farms or in tiny rural (乡村的) villages. It was not until the 20th century that Great Britain became the first urban society in history--- a society in which the majority of people live in cities and do not farm for a living.
Britain was only the beginning. 72 .The process of urbanization--- the migration (迁移) of people from the countryside to the city--- was the result of modernization, which has rapidly transformed how people live and where they live. In 1990, fewer than 40% of Americans lived in urban areas. Today, over 82% of Americans live in cities. Only about 2% live on farms. 73 .
Large cities were impossible until agriculture became industrialized. Even in advanced agricultural societies. It took about ninety-five people on farms to feed five people in cities. _74 . Until modern times, those living in cities were mainly the ruling elite(精英) and the servants, laborers and professionals who served them. Cities survived by taxing farmers and were limited in size by the amount of surplus food that the rural population produced and by the ability to move this surplus from farm to city.
Over the past two centuries, the Industrial Revolution has broken this balance between the city and the country. 75_ . Today, instead of needing ninety-five farmers to feed five city people, one American farmer is able to feed more than a hundred non-farmers.
A. That kept cities very small.
B. The rest live in small towns.
C. The effects of urban living on people should be considered.
D. Soon many other industrial nations become urban societies.
E. But even 200 years ago, only a few people could live in cities.
F. Modernization drew people to the cities and made farmers more productive.
G. Modern cities have destroyed social relations and the health of human beings.
To forgive is a virtue, but no one has ever said it is easy. When someone has deeply hurt you, it can be extremely difficult to let go of your hate. However, forgiveness is possible, and it can be surprisingly beneficial to your physical and mental health. People who forgive show less sadness, anger and stress and more hopefulness, according to a recent research.
__71___ Try the following steps:
Calm yourself. __72___ You can take a couple of breaths and think of something that gives you pleasure: a beautiful scene in nature, or someone you love.
Don’t wait for an apology. Many times the person who hurt you does not intend to apologize. They may have wanted to hurt you or they just don’t see things the same way. __73___ Keep in mind that forgiveness does not necessarily mean becoming friends again with the person who upset you.
Take the control away from your offender(冒犯者). Rethinking about you hurt gives power to the person who causes you pain. Instead of focusing on your mounded feelings, learn to look for the love, beauty and kindness around you.
___74___ If you understand your offender, you may realize that he or she was acting out of unawareness, fear, and even love. You may want to write a letter to yourself from your offender’s point of view.
Don’t forget to forgive yourself. __75__ But it can rob you of your self-confidence if you don’t do it.
A.Why should you forgive?
B.How should you start to forgive?
C.Recognize the benefits of forgiveness.
D.Try to see things from you offender’s angle.
E.For some people, forgiving themselves is the biggest challenge.
F.To make your anger die away, try a simple stress-management technique.
G.If you wait for people to apologize, you could be waiting an awfully long time.
The jobs of the future have not yet been invented. 36 . By helping them develop classic skills that will serve them well no matter what the future holds.
Your children need to be deeply curious. 37. Ask kids, “What ingredients (配料)can we add to make these pancakes even better next time ?” and then try them out. Ingredients make the pancakes better? What could we try next time?
True creativity is the ability to take something existing and create something new 38. There are a dozen different things you can do with them. Experimenting with materials to create something new can go a long way in helping them develop their creativity.
Understanding how others feel can be a challenge for kids. We know what’s going on inside our own head, but what about others? Being able to read people helps kid from misreading a situation and jumping to false conclusions. 39 . “Why do you think she’s crying?” “Can you tell how that man is feeling by looking at his face?” “If someone were to do that to you, how would you feel?”
4. Self Expression
40 there are many ways to express thoughts and ideas –music, acting, drawing, building, photography. You may find that your child is attracted by one more than another.
A.Encourage kids to cook with you.
B.And we can’t forget science education.
C.We can give kids chances to think about materials in new ways.
D.So how can we help our kids prepare for jobs that don’t yet exist?
E.Gardening is another great activity for helping kids develop this skill.
F.We can do this in real life or ask questions about characters in stories.
G.Being able to communicate ideas in a meaningful way is a valuable skill.
Tips for cooking on a Tight Schedule
From my experience, there are three main reasons why people don’t cook more often: ability, money and time, ____36__Money is a topic I’ll save for another day. So today I want to give you some wisdom about how to make the most of the time you spend in the kitchen. Here are three tips for great cooking on a tight schedule:
1.Think ahead. The moments when I think cooking is a pain are when I’m already hungry and there is nothing ready to eat. So think about of the coming week. When will you have time to cook? Do you have the right materials ready?____37____
2.Make your time worth it. When you do find time to cook a meal, make the most of it and save yourself time later on. Are you making one loaf of bread? ___38___ it takes around the same amount of time to make more of something. So save yourself the effort for a future meal.
3.¬ ____39¬¬¬____ This may surprise you, but one of the best tools for making cooking worth your time is experimentation. It gives you the chance to hit upon new ideas and recipes that can work well with your appetite and schedule. The more you learn and the more you try, the more ability you have to take control of your food and your schedule.
Hopefully that gives you a good start. ____40___ and don’t let a busy schedule discourage you from making some great changes in the way you eat and live!
A. Try new things.
B. Ability is easily improved.
C. Make three or four instead.
D. Understand your food better.
E. Cooking is a burden for many people.
F. Let cooking and living simply be a joy rather than a burden.
G. A little time planning ahead can save a lot of work later on.
Evaluating Sources (来源) of health Information
Making good choices about your own health requires reasonable evaluation. A key first step in bettering your evaluation ability is to look carefully at your sources of healthy information. Reasonable evaluation includes knowing where and how to fins relevant information, how to separate fact from opinions, how to recognize poor reasoning, and how to analyze information and the reliability of sources. 71
Go to the original source. Media reports often simplify the results of medical research. Find out for yourself what a study really reported, and determine whether it was based on good science. Think about the type of study. 73
Watch for misleading language. Some studies will find that a behaviour “contributes to” or is “associated with” an outcome; this does not mean that a certain course must lead to a certain result. 73 Carefully read or listen to information in order to fully understand it.
Use your common sense. If a report seems too good to be true, probably it is. Be especially careful of information contained in advertisements. 74 Evaluate “scientific” statements carefully, and be aware of quackery(江湖骗术).
75 Friends and family members can be a great source of ideas and inspiration, but each of us needs to find a healthy lifestyle that works for us.
Developing the ability to evaluate reasonably and independently about the health problems will serve you well throughout your life.
A. Make choice that are right for you.
B. The goal of an ad is to sell you something.
C. Be sure to work through the critical questions.
D. And examine the findings of the original research.
E. Distinguish between research reports and public health advice.
F. Be aware that information may also be incorrectly explained by an author’s point of view.
G. The following suggestions can help you sort through the health information you receive from common sources.
Eyesight plays a very important role in our daily life. Every waking moment, the eyes are working to see the world around us. Over forty percent of Americans worry about losing eyesight, but it's easy to include steps into our daily life to ensure healthy eyes. Here are five suggestions for a lifetime of healthy eyesight:
· Schedule yearly exams. 36 Experts advise parents to bring babies 6 to 12 months of age to the doctor for a careful check. The good news is that millions of children now can have yearly eye exams and following treatment, including eyeglasses.
· Protect against UV rays (紫外线). Long-term stay in the sun creates risk to your eyes. No matter what the season is, it's extremely important to wear sunglasses.
Give your eyes a break. Two-thirds of Americans spend up to seven hours a day using computers or other digital products. 38 Experts recommend that people practice the 20/20/20 rule: every 20 minutes, take a 20-second break and look at something 20 feet away.
· 39 As part of a healthy diet, eat more fruits and vegetables each day. Vitamins (维生素) C and E help protect eyesight and promote eye health.
· Practice safe wear and care of contact lenses (隐形眼镜). Many Americans use contact lenses to improve their eyesight. While some follow the medical guidance for wearing contact lenses, many are breaking the rules and putting their eyesight at risk. 40 Otherwise, you may have problems such as red eyes, pain in the eyes, or a more serious condition.
A. Eat your greens.
B. Eye care should begin early in life.
C. They can properly protect your eyes.
D. Stay in good shape by taking more vitamins.
E. Parents usually don’t care about their own eyesight.
F. Always follow the doctor’s advice for appropriate wear.
G. This frequent eye activity increases the risk for eye tiredness.
Building Trust in a Relationship Again
Trust is a learned behavior that we gain from past experiences, 36 . Trust is a risk. But you can’t be successful when there’s a lack of trust in a relationship that results from an action where the wrongdoer takes no responsibility to fix the mistake.
Unfortunately, we’ve all been victims of betrayal. Whether we’ve been stolen from, lied to , misled, or cheated on, there are different levels of losing trust. Sometimes people simply can’t trust anymore, 37. It’s understandable, but if you’re willing to build trust in a relationship again, we have some steps you can take to get you there.
● 38 Having confidence in yourself will help you make better choices because you can see what the best outcome would be for your well-being.
●39 If you’ve been betrayed, you are the victim of your circumstance. But there’s a difference between being a victim and living with a “victim mentality”. At some point in all of our lives, we’ll have our trust tested or violated.
You didn’t lose “everything”. Once trust is lost, what is left? Instead of looking at the situation from this hopeless angle, look at everything you still have and be thankful for all of the good in your life. 40 Instead, it’s a healthy way to work through the experience to allow room for positive growth and forgiveness.
A. Learn to really trust yourself.
B. It is putting confidence in someone.
C. Stop regarding yourself as the victim.
D. Remember that you can expect the best in return.
E. Seeing the positive side of things doesn’t mean you’re ignoring what happened.
F. This knowledge carries over in their attitude toward their future relationships.
G. They’ve been too badly hurt and they can’t bear to let it happen again.
Training for a marathon requires careful preparation and steady, gradual increases in the length of the runs. 36 ,buy the best-fitting, best-built running shoes you can find. No one can say which brand will work best for you or feel best on your feet, so you have to rely on your experience and on the feel of each pair as you shop. When you have found shoes that seem right, walk in them for a few days to double-check the fit. 37 .As always, you should stretch(伸展) at least ten minutes before each run to prevent injuries.
During the first week, do not think about distance, but run five minutes longer each day. 38 ,it is wise to take a day off to rest. But during the next week, set a goal of at least a mile and a half per run. 39 .After two weeks, start timing yourself. 40 .Depending on the kind of race you plan to enter, you can set up a timetable for the remaining weeks before the race.
A. After six days
B．For a good marathon runner
C. Before you begin your training
D. With each day, increase the distance by a half mile
E. If they still feel good, you can begin running in them
F. Time spent for preparation raises the quality of training
G. Now you are ready to figure out a goal of improving distance and time
This Way to Dreamland
Daydreaming means people think about something pleasant, especially when this makes them forget what they should be doing. Daydreamers have a bad reputation for being unaware of what’s happening around them. They can seem forgetful and clumsy._71__They annoy us because they seem to be ignoring us and missing the important things.
But daydreamers are also responsible for some of the greatest ideas and achievements in human history. __72__ Can you imagine what kind of world we would have without such ideas and inventions?
So how can you come up with brilliant daydreams and avoid falling over tree roots or otherwise looking like a fool?
First, understand that some opportunities(机会) for daydreaming are better than others. Feeling safe and relaxed will help you to slip into daydreams.__73_ And if you want to improve your chances of having a creative idea while you’re daydreaming, try to do it while you are involved in another task—preferably something simple, like taking a shower or walking, or even making meaningless drawings.
It’s also important to know how to avoid daydreams for those times when you really need to concentrate. “Mindfulness”, being focused, is a tool that some people use to avoid falling asleep.__74__
Finally, you never know what wonderful idea might strike while your mind has moved slowly away.____75_
Always remember that your best ideas might come when your head is actually in the clouds.
A. Having interesting things to think about also helps.
B. They stare off into space and wander by themselves.
C. Without wandering minds, we wouldn’t have relatively, Coke or Post-it notes.
D. At one time, daydreaming was thought to be a cause of some mental illnesses.
E. It involves slow, steady breathing for self-control that helps people stay calm and attentive.
F. Daydreams are often very simple and direct, quite unlike sleep dreams, which may be hard to understand.
G. Therefore, it’s a good idea to keep a notebook or voice recorder nearby when you’re in the daydream zone.
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2011北京 71—75 DEAFG
2011辽宁 71—75 FAEGC
2012 北京 71---75 BDGFC
2012辽宁 71---75 ECBGD
2013北京 71----75 EDBAF
2013 辽宁 71-75BFGDE
2014全国1 36-40 DACFG
2014全国2 36—40 BGCAF
2014北京 71-75: GDFBA
2014辽宁 36.----40 BCGAF
2015全国1 36---40 .BGACE
2015全国2 36---40. CEADG
2015 北京 71---75.BCAEG