On November 7，Lewis Pugh completed a one¬kilometer swim in the freezing waters of King Edward Cove，off South Georgia in Antarctica.He was wearing only his swimming glasses，cap and speedos!
Pugh is an advocate for our oceans and seas，working to protect these ecosystem with their large diversity of marine(海洋的) life.When asked why he doesn’t wear a wetsuit，Lewis says，“I ask world leaders to do everything they can to protect our oceans.Sometimes the steps they need to take are difficult and unpopular.If I’m asking them to be courageous，I must also be.Swimming in a wetsuit would not send the right message.”
It took Pugh about 19 minutes to complete the one¬kilometer swim in Antarctica where the water averaged about 1.6 degrees Celsius(摄氏度)．He says that his body can only tolerate about 20 minutes in the freezing waters before it starts shutting down.As he swims，his body temperature steadily drops，which in turn causes his muscle(肌肉) control to drop，slowing him down.When he is done with his swim，his support team rushes him to a hot shower and it takes almost an hour for his body temperature to return to normal.
Doctors and Pugh caution that one must receive months of training to swim in such cold waters.Even expert swimmers who are unused to freezing water can drown within minutes because of the physical shock experienced by the body.Pugh says he trained for six months before this swim.
This is not the first time that Lewis has swum in dangerous conditions.In 2007，he swam one kilometer in the North Pole to draw attention to the melting Arctic ice due to climate change.In 2015，he swam in the Bay of Whales in Antarctica’s Ross Sea as part of his successful campaign to help set up a marine reserve there.
1．Why did Lewis Pugh swim without a wetsuit?
A．To swim faster.
B．To show his bravery.
C．To build up his body.
D．To win public attention.
2．What’s Pugh’s advice about swimming in freezing waters?
A．One must be fully prepared.
B．One should be expert at swimming.
C．One should be ready to take on challenges.
D．One must be used to long¬distance swimming.
3．What may be the best title for the text?
A．Lewis Pugh：Swimming for a Cause
B．How to Survive a Swim in Cold Waters
C．How to Prepare for Extreme Swimming
D．Lewis Pugh：Achieving the Impossible
People typically wash their hands several times a day in the United States，but they do it at a far higher temperature than is necessary to kill germs，a new study says.The energy waste is equivalent to the fuel use of a small country.
Amanda R．Carrico，a research assistant professor at the Vanderbilt Institute for Energy and Environment in Tennessee，told National Geographic that hand washing is often “a case where people act in ways that they think are in their best interest，but they in fact have inaccurate beliefs or outdated perceptions.”
Carrico said，“It’s certainly true that heat kills bacteria，but if you were going to use hot water to kill them it would have to be away too hot for you to tolerate.”
Carrico said that after a review of the scientific literature，her team found “no evidence that using hot water that a person could stand would have any benefit in killing bacteria.” Even water as cold as 40°F(4.4°C) appeared to reduce bacteria as well as hotter water，if hands were scrubbed，rinsed(冲洗) and dried properly.
Using hot water to wash hands is therefore unnecessary，as well as wasteful，Carrico said，particularly when it comes to the environment.According to her research，people use warm or hot water 64 percent of the time when they wash their hands.Using that number，Carrico’s team calculated a significant impact on the planet.
“Although the choice of water temperature during a single hand wash may appear unimportant，when multiplied by the nearly 800 billion hand washes performed by Americans each year，this practice results in more than 6 million metric tons of CO2 equivalent emissions annually，” she said.
The researchers published their results in the July 2013 issue of International Journal of Consumer Studies.They recommended washing with water that is at a “comfortable” temperature，which they noted may be warmer in cold months and cooler in hot ones.
4．What’s the meaning of what Carrico told National Geographic in the second paragraph?
A．People are more concerned about their health and begin to wash their hands.
B．It’s important for people to wash their hands to keep healthy.
C．Generally，people’s hand washing behaviors and perceptions are not correct.
D．People like washing their hands very much.
5．The figures in the sixth paragraph are used to show that .
A．using hot water to wash hands has a bad influence on our planet
B．air pollution has become more and more serious
C．using hot water to wash hands is a waste of energy
D．people should pay more attention to the environment around us
6．This passage is organized in the pattern of .
A．fact and opinion
B．cause and effect
C．definition and classification
D．time and events
7．What can we learn from the passage?
A．It’s necessary and useful for people to wash their hands frequently every day.
B．We can wash our hands with water that is at a “comfortable” temperature.
C．Using cold water to wash hands is necessary and much healthier.
D．Hot water can’t kill germs.
She sat at the picnic table alone.Recess(休息) was in full swing.She remained awkward around her classmates.She seemed unsure of what to do or say，yet I could see her eyes longing for acceptance.Many students had already decided that her friendship would not be worth the energy required to overcome the awkwardness.Others teased her.Most ignored her—except for one.
Brianna，the class clown，was making the other students laugh，as usual.“Brianna，do you see Molly down there？Would you mind walking down there and inviting her to come up here with the rest of us？”
Brianna sighed.I could tell she didn’t want to sacrifice precious minutes of her own recess to do what I was asking of her，but I also knew her heart.She often thought of others before herself—a rare character for anyone，much less a kid.
Knowing this choice was hard for her，I pulled out a D¬buck，our class currency.Though bribery(行贿) was not the ideal way to handle this situation，I needed her cooperation.
“Here，I’ll pay you for your time.”
She offered an insincere smile，grasped the green paper，and headed down the hill.
As the rest of the children screamed and laughed，my eyes locked on Brianna as she neared the picnic table.Molly could be difficult，and I wouldn’t have been surprised if she sent Brianna back alone，refusing her invitation.When she encouraged herself to a standing position，I sighed with relief.
A minute later，I felt a tap on my shoulder.“Here，Mrs.D.” She handed me the D¬buck.
“Why？” I asked.
“I shouldn’t keep this.” Her eyes fell to her feet，guilt radiating from her quiet voice.“I don’t want Molly to think I only went to get her so I could earn a buck.She’s my friend.”
A moment later，they were all laughing again，and who should I see among them，laughing for the first time that week？Molly.
8．According to the author，what was Molly like?
A．She ignored the jokes from other kids.
B．She felt awkward at being teased.
C．She desired to be accepted by other kids.
D．She had no energy to make friends.
9．How did the author feel as Brianna walked to Molly?
10．What was the purpose of Brianna’s returning the D¬buck to the author?
A．To avoid losing it one day.
B．To get a pure friendship with Molly.
C．To bribe her teacher.
D．To escape from being scolded by her teacher.
In a world surrounded by bad news，it may feel like an unhappy place sometimes. 11
If you make even one person smile today，you can help make this world a better place.Here is a list of ideas to help you.
12 In this day and age where everything is sent via the Internet，it’s a shock to receive a letter through the post.Putting pen to paper and writing a few words to a friend can be an easy way to make a positive impact.
Requiring some time and research to find the perfect project，volunteering is one of the nicest things you can do.Whether you volunteer at your local youth group or take dogs from shelters for a walk，the simple fact that you are giving your time to help someone else is incredible.There are so many opportunities. 13
Tell someone “I love you”．It can be anyone. 14 Perhaps you can tell a friend that you appreciate all they are to you，or remind your mum that it’s her birthday.Sometimes，in our busy lives we forget to take a moment to tell people what they mean to us.
15 Whether you’re creative or not，taking time to make something for someone else shows how much you appreciate them.Even if you think you’re not creative，the recipient will feel lucky to get such a unique gift that you put your precious time into.Some ideas could include a card，painting，drawing，song，poem or cake!
A．However，you can make a difference.
B．It’s a surprise to send a handwritten letter.
C．And you don’t even have to say “I love you”．
D．So you are sure to find one that is right for you.
E．And it doesn’t necessarily have to take up all your life.
F．Making something for a special person is always unique.
G．Even a postcard with a couple of sentences could really make someone’s day.