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巧克力趣史 History of Chocolate
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巧克力趣史 History of Chocolate

600 可可与文明
公元600年,随着玛雅人从中美洲向北方的迁徙,也把他们的文明传播到了那里。在尤卡坦半岛,他们建立起早期的可可种植园。毫无疑问,玛雅人已在几个世纪前就对可可有所认识了。
600 Culture and Cocoa
A.D. 600 the Mayas undertook a massive migration which led this highly civilised people from Central America deep into the northern regions of South America. In Yucatan they established the earliest known cocoa plantations. There is no doubt, however, that the Mayas must have been familiar with cocoa several centuries earlier.

1000 可可与数字
很久以前,美洲中部的先民就用可可豆作为支付方式。在公元1000年以前,可可豆就作为计数的单位。400个可可豆相当于1Zontli,800个可可豆相当于1Xiquipilli。在墨西哥,装有8000个可可豆的篮子的图片就表示数字8000。
1000 Beans and Figures
From the very early days of cocoa the peoples of Central America used beans as a form of payment. The use of cocoa beans as units of calculation must also have become established before A.D. 1000. One Zontli equalled 400 cocoa beans, while 8000 beans equalled one Xiquipilli. In Mexican picture scripts a basket with 8000 beans represents the figure 8000.

1200 巧克力之争
阿芷台克人为了巩固他们在墨西哥的统治权,对玛雅人采取了抑制策略。据史料记载,可可常作为上贡给获胜部落的供品。
1200 Chocolate War
By subjugating the Mayas, the Aztecs strengthened their supremacy in Mexico. Records dating from this period include details of deliveries of cocoa which were imposed as tributes on conquered tribes.

1502 哥伦布与可可豆
在1502年7月30日,哥伦布第四次美洲航行中,他在尼加拉瓜发现了可可豆。他成为第一个发现可可豆的欧洲人。可可豆在当地流通,同时也可做成美味的饮品。但由于哥伦布仍在搜寻通往印度的航线,因此并未对可可产生任何兴趣。
1502 Columbus and the Cocoa bean
On his fourth voyage to America, Columbus landed on 30th July 1502 in Nicaragua and was the first European to discover cocoa beans. These were used by the natives as currency and also in the preparation of a delightful drink. But Columbus, who was still searching for the sea route to India, was not interested in cocoa.

1513 用可可豆付款
1503年,Hernando作为探险队的一员,来到美洲。在他的报告中提到他居然用100个可可豆交换到了一个奴隶。
1513 Payment in Beans
Hernando de Oviedo y Valdez, who went to America in 1513 as a member of Pedrarias Avila's expedition, reports that he bought a slave for 100 cocoa beans.

1519 西班牙银行
在1519年,Hernando Cortez占领了墨西哥的部分地区。他并未被可可的味道吸引,倒是对可可豆能作为支付手段这一作用十分感兴趣。他立即建立了一个名为“西班牙”的可可种植园,开始种植 “金钱”。
1519 A Spanish Bank
Hernando Cortez, who conquered part of Mexico in 1519, finds the taste of cocoa not particularly pleasant and is, therefore, much more interested in the value of cocoa as a means of payment. He immediately establishes in the name of Spain a cocoa plantation where, henceforth, 'money' will be cultivated.

1528 香甜的战利品
1528年,Cortez第一次把可可和与可可相关的厨具带回了欧洲。
1528 Sweet Plunder
In 1528, Cortez brings back to Europe the first cocoa and the utensils necessary for its preparation.

1609 第一本巧克力书
1609年,第一本完全介绍巧克力的书籍在墨西哥出版,它的名字叫做“Libro en el cual se trata del chocolate”。
1609 The First Chocolate Book
'Libro en el cual se trata del chocolate' is the title of a book which appear- ed in Mexico in 1609. It is the first book devoted entirely to the subject of chocolate.

1615 富有成效的婚姻
西班牙公主Anna与Louis XIII喜结连理,并把可可饮品带入了法国宫廷。
1615 Fruitful Marriage
The Spanish princess Anna of Austria marries Louis XIII and intro- duces, amongst other Spanish customs, the drinking of chocolate at the French court.

1657 法国人在伦敦
1657年法国人在伦敦开了第一家巧克力商店。
1657 A Frenchman in London
London's first chocolate shop is opened by a Frenchman in 1657.

1662 巧克力的繁荣发展
在Pius V教皇喝道可可后,他十分不喜欢它的味道,于是宣称“这种饮品是禁食的”。然而罗马教会对这种美味饮品的态度却越来越宽容。于是“禁食”这一问题变得棘手起来。在1662年,红衣主教Brancaccio推翻了以前的说法,声称“可可并没有打破戒律”。无疑,人们已经迫不及待地想要在复活节上纵饮可可了。
1662 A Solomon of Chocolate
After Pope Pius V had found cocoa so unpleasant that he declared, in 1569, that "this drink does not break the fast", the supreme church of Rome became more and more tolerant towards the exquisite beverage. The question of the fast took on a new urgency. In 1662, Cardinal Brancaccio hands down the judgment of Solomon:"Liquidum non fragit jejunum." In other words:"Liquids (in the form of chocolate) do not break the fast." Clearly, one had to wait until Easter to indulge in the eating of chocolate.

1670 水手的命运
水手Pedro Bravo凭着他的航海经验,来到菲律宾,筹集资金,用余生建立起了当时最大的可可种植园。
1670 The Fate of a Seaman
Helmsman Pedro Bravo do los Camerinos decides that he has had enough of Christian voyages of exploration and settles in the Philippines, where he spends the rest of his life planting cocoa, thus laying the foundations for one of the great plantations of that time.

1674 巧克力卷
早在1674年人们就可以在伦敦著名的咖啡馆“At the Coffee Mill and Tobacco Roll”里享受到美味的西班牙式的巧克力蛋糕和巧克力卷。
1674 Roll Call
"At the Coffee Mill and Tobacco Roll" was the name of a famous London coffee-house where, as early as 1674, one could enjoy chocolate in cakes and rolls "in the Spanish style".

1677 王令
1677年11月1日,巴西王室下达命令,要建造第一家可可种植园。这一命令对国际市场产生了深远的影响。
1677 A Royal Decree
On the strength of a royal decree dated 1st November 1677, Brazil - later to achieve an important position in the world market - establishes in the State of Para' the first cocoa plantations.

1697 苏黎世市长
苏黎世市长Heinrich Escher,在拜访布鲁塞尔,并品尝到可可的美味后,欣喜地把这种美味的新饮品带了回去。
1697 Premier in Zurich
Heinrich Escher, the mayor of Zurich, visits Brussels where he drinks chocolate and returns to his home town with tidings of the new sweet drink.

1704 巧克力税
17世纪末,巧克力在德国出现。普鲁士的Frederick I采取制约进口商品的政策,在1704年对巧克力征税。任何人要想尝到美味的巧克力,就不得不再多花额外的两个银币。
1704 Chocolate Tax
Towards the end of the 17th century, chocolate makes its appearance in Germany. The policy of restricting the importation of foreign produce leads Frederick I of Prussia to impose a tax on chocolate in 1704. Anyone wishing to pay homage to its pleasures has to pay two thalers for a permit.

1711 巧克力移民
1711年,Charles VI皇帝把他的宫廷从马德里迁到了维也纳。随着宫廷的迁移,巧克力也风靡了蓝色多瑙河。
1711 Chocolate Migration
Emperor Charles VI transfers his court from Madrid to Vienna in 1711. With the court, chocolate moves in by via the blue Danube.

1630 巧克力师
18世纪20年代早期,欧洲人都知道只有在佛罗伦萨和威尼斯的咖啡馆里能吃到最美味的巧克力。这使意大利巧克力师成为法国、德国、瑞士最欢迎的游客。
1630 Chocolateers
As early as 1630, the coffee-houses of Florence and Venice are offering chocolate whose reputation reaches far beyond the country's borders. Italian chocolateers, well versed in the art of making chocolate, are, therefore, welcome visitors in France, Germany and Switzerland.

1747 抑商
1747年,Frederick采取了大规模的抑商运动,特别是禁止巧克力商贩的活动。
1747 No Hawkers
In the year 1747, Frederick the Great forbids all manner of hawking, especially the hawking of chocolate.

1780 第一家工厂
1780年,第一家用机器制造巧克力的工厂在巴塞罗那建成。
1780 First Factory
About the year 1780, the first machine-made chocolate is produced in Barcelona.

1819 先驱
第一家瑞士巧克力工厂建立在Vevey附近。它的创建者Francois-Louis Cailler通过交易获得了意大利的巧克力制造秘方。
1819 Pioneers
The first Swiss chocolate factory is set up in a former mill near Vevey. The founder, Francois-Louis Cailler, had learned the secrets of the choco- late-making trade in Italy.

1822 装饰性植物
葡萄牙人Jose Ferreira Gomes把可可树当作装饰性植物引进了位于西非几内亚海湾的普林西比岛。
1822 Ornamental Plant
The Portuguese Jose Ferreira Gomes introduces the cocoa tree as an ornamental plant on the small island of Principe in the Gulf of Guinea off the west coast of Africa.

1875 牛奶巧克力
瑞士人Daniel Peter经过8年的试验,在1875年向市场推出了第一块牛奶巧克力。
1875 With Milk
After eight years of experiment, the Swiss Daniel Peter puts the first milk chocolate on the market in 1875.

1879 入口即融的甜蜜
1879年,Rodolphe Lindt在瑞士的伯尔尼生产出第一块入口即融的巧克力。
1879 Melting Sweetness
Rodolphe Lindt of Berne produces chocolate which melts on the tongue for the first time in the year 1879.

1900 领导层的转换
西班牙,从前的巧克力业领头羊,现在已经落后于时代了。现在,从消费量来看,德国排在首位,紧随其后的是美国、法国以及英国。在未来的岁月中,瑞士将成为巧克力业的领头羊。瑞士巧克力已经在国际上展现出它的独特魅力。与烤肠、干酪一样,巧克力已成为瑞士著名的特色食品。
1900 Changes in Leadership
Spain, formerly the classic land of chocolate, falls far behind. Germany takes the lead in consumption per head, followed by the United States, France and Great Britain. In just a decade or two another country will be playing first violin in the orchestra of the chocolate nations - Switzerland. The reputation of Swiss chocolate, bolstered by unbroken series of medals at international exhibitions, has not only fallen upon the ears of foreigners. It has also conquered Swiss palates. Like bratwurst, r?sti and fondue, chocolate has become a national dish.

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