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高中英语教材重难点:高三 Unit 16--20
| 文章作者:佚名 | 文章来源:本站整理 | 文章录入:henry982 | 更新时间:2006-6-12 | 字体: |

Unit 16 Social and personal
1. part-time jobs 兼职工作,零活,非全日制的工作
part - time是复合形容词,作“部分时间的”“兼职的”“兼任的”解,a part-time teacher(兼职教师),a part-time engineer(兼职工程师)。taking a part-time job(打零工)。part-time也可作副词,如:Mr. Cook teaches part-time in our school. 库克先生在我们学校兼课。
2. Fred Pearson was walking through the university town of Oxford one morning in 1961. 1961年的一个上午,弗雷德.皮尔逊正在走过牛津大学城。
Oxford是英格兰中南部牛津部(Oxfordshire)的一个主要城镇,是英国牛津大学(Oxford University)的所在地。该大学创建于1167年,是世界闻名的一所大学。
3. He was on his way to a lecture, when a tourist stopped him and asked him for directions. 他正准备去听课,这时一位游客拦住了他问路。
We were watching TV when there were was a knock. 我们正在看电视,突然有人在敲门。
He was about to go out when the bell rang. 他正要出门,这时门铃响了。
4. As Fred was going in the same direction, he walked along with the tourist. 因为弗雷德正是去同一个方向,所以他就同这位游客一道走。
in the same direction 朝同一个方向(注意:介词是in而不是to)
in all directions/ in every direction 朝四面八方
in the opposite direction 朝相反的方向
5. They got on so well that Fred decided not to go to the lecture but to show the tourist around the university instead. 他们相处得很好,因此,弗雷德决定不去听课了,而领着这位游客参观这所大学。
1) get on有“相处”“上车、上马”“进展、生活”的意思。如:
How are you getting on/along with your English? 你的英语学习进展如何?
He got on a bus but didn't know where to go. 他上了一辆公共汽车但不知道该去哪儿。
They were getting on/along well with each other. 他们相处得非常融洽。
2) show sb. around 是“带领某人参观……”的意思。
She showed us around the city. 她带我们参观了那座城市。
与show构成的短语还有be on show(展览);show sb. out/in(领某人出去/进来)。
6. They spent a full and very enjoyable morning together, and Fred discovered that he had a gift for making a visit interesting and lively. 他们在一起度过了一个充实而又非常欢快的上午,弗雷德从中发现自己具有导游的才能,能够使参观变得生动活泼,饶有风趣。
句中的gift是可数名词,作“禀赋”“天生的才能”解,常用于“have a gift for”结构,意思是“有……的才能”。例如:
She has a gift for music. 她有音乐天才。
He was a man of excellent gifts. 他是一位极有天赋的人。
7. This is one example of a part-time job leading to greater things. 这是一个通过做零活而走向成功的事例。
lead to有“通向、通往”“导致、导向”的意思。例如:
All roads lead to Rome. 条条道路通罗马。
Laziness led to his failure. 懒惰导致了他的失败。
8. It is a good idea to start a part-time ob as long as it does not affect your studies. 只要不影响学业而干点零活,这是个好主意。
so/as long as 是一个连词词组,意为“只要”。例如:
I'll come to see you as long as I am free. 只要我有空,我会来看你的。
9. They value someone who leads an active life and is anxious to learn. 他们器重那些生活活跃而又渴望学习的人。
You should value the advice of your teacher. 你应当重视老师的劝告。
We'd better value the friendship between us. 我们最好还是珍视我们之间的友谊吧。
We should learn the value of money, and learn how many hours' work has to be done before we can buy something. 我们应当了解金钱的价值,应当了解需要劳动多少小时才能买回某件物品。又如:
It is of great value. = It's very valuable. 这很有价值。
10. It's a part-time job, so I only work evenings. 这是一件零活,我只在晚上做。
I've got to work evenings. 我必须每天晚上工作。
I'm always at home evenings. 晚上我一般都在家。
11. Maybe I should have told that workmate I knew what he was doing. 也许我早就该告诉那位工友,我了解他在干些什么勾当。
“should + have + 过去分词”结构,意思是“本来应该如何如何”,暗示“事实并非如此”的意思。如本句“我本该告诉……”,但事实上并没有告诉。例如:
I should have phoned Tom this morning, but I forgot. 今天上午我本该给汤姆打电话,可是我忘了。
What's the matter? You should have received that letter. 怎么回事了?你本该早就收到那封信了。
12. There is no need to say anything to the other worker. 没有必要给那位工友说什么。
“There is no need to do...”是一种固定的表达法,意思是“没有必要做……”。例如:
There is no need to worry about it. 没有必要为此担忧。
也可以说“There is no need for...”。例如:
There is no need for play. 不必玩了。
There is no doubt about the correct thing to do. 正确的事情该做,不要有什么疑虑。
“There is no doubt about...”意思是:“对于……没有怀疑/疑虑”。例如:
There is no doubt about his advice. 他的忠告没有什么可怀疑的。
There is a little/not much doubt about what I said. 我说的话没有什么可怀疑的。
13. It is quite possible that the thief might put some meat in your bag, hoping you will be caught and called a thief. 很可能这个小偷会把肉放进你的袋子里,希望人们抓住你,叫你小偷。
在这个句中,v.-ing形式短语用作状语,修饰谓语动词might put,表示伴随动作。这个句子可改为:
Possibly, the thief might put some meat in your bag and hope you will be caught and called a thief.
14. In my opinion, you should have done this as soon as you found out he was stealing. 依我个人之见,你一旦发现他偷东西,就该去报告。
in one's opinion依照某人的看法;按照某人的观点。又如:
In my opinion, she shouldn't have told you at all. 依我之见,她根本就不该告诉你。
15. In the course of history, people have sent messages in many different ways. 历史上,人们用各种各样的方法传递信息。
in the course of = during the course of 作“在……的过程中”“在……期间”解,例如:
In the course of the class, Mr. Liu taught us to sing an English song. 在那节课上,刘老师教我们唱了一首英语歌曲。
16. In 1994 the Swiss army made a decision to give up its collection of message - carrying birds. 1994年,瑞士军队决定不再征集能传递信息的鸟。
message - carrying birds 动词v.-ing形式与前面的名词合成一个词,作定语。例如:
English - speaking countries 讲英语的国家
peace - loving people 爱好和平的人们
例:1.How __ can you finish the drawing? (1992年全国高考题)
A. often B. soon C. long D. rapid
简析:这句话的意思是“你什么时候能完成这幅画?”在一般将来时中,要用how soon提问。How often表示频度,如:How often do you go to the factory? Once a week; How long表示时间长度或其他长度等,如:How long have you been here? For about two years.答案选B。
例:2.If we work with a strong will, we can overcome any difficulty, __ great it is. (1995年全国高考题)
A. what B. how C.however D.whatever
简析: 这是一个让步状语从句,great是形容词,前面要填however。 However后接形容词,how后面也可接形容词,但不能构成让步状语从句。这句话的意思是:“如果我们以坚强的意志工作,无论困难多大,我们都能克服。”答案C。
例:3.She found her calculator __ she lost it.(2000年上海市高考题)
A. where B. when C. in which D. that
简析:这是一个地点状语从句,其意思是:“东西是在丢的地方找到的”。where和in which都可以用于定语从句中。但in which前必须有先行词,这个句中没有先行词,所以不能填in which。答案A。
例:4.-How did you find your visit to the museum?
-I thoroughly enjoyed it. it was __ than I expected. (1991年全国高考题)
A. far more interesting B. even much interesting
C.so more interesting D. a lot much interesting
简析:因为这个句子中有than, 所以要用比较级。选项B和D中的even much interesting和a lot much interesting都不是比较级。interesting是多音节形容词,前面加more才能构成比较级,所以不能作为答案, more放在多音节形容词的前面构成比较级,so后不接比较级,far可以用于形容词比较级前作修饰语,强调程度、性质、意思是“...得多”,答案选A。
例:5.The director gave me a better offer than  ___. (1999年上海市高考题)
A. that of dick's B.Dick's C. he gave Dick D.those of Dick
简析:在做形容词的比较级之类的题目时,要注意比较的对象。这句话的意思是“导演给我提供的条件要比Dick提供的好”。比较的是所提供的条件。所以用了he gave Dick。Dick's, that of Dick's 和those of Dick都是表示Dick的条件或供他提供的条件,所以不能作为答案。答案C。
例:6. Greenland, ___ island in the world, covers over two million square kilometres. (2000年上海市高考题)
A. it is the largest B. that is the largest
C. is the largest D. the largest
简析:如果把这个句子理解为非限定性定语从句,那是判断失误,因为非限定性定语从句必须用关系代词which填写,但所给的选项中没有which引导的句子,实际上,the largest island in the world 用作同位语。答案为D。
1. affect[\~E5fekt\~]v. 影响
例:Changes in climate affected the amount of rainfall. 气候变化影响了降雨量。
[记忆技巧]形近词比较记忆:effect[\~i5fekt\~]n. 结束
2. offer[\~5CfE\~]v. 提供,给予
例:The people of the African interior began to offer gold in exchange for the goods they needed from abroad. 从此后非洲内地的各族人民开始用黄金交换他们所需要的外国货物。
[记忆技巧]同义词比较记忆:present[\~pri5zent\~]v. 给予,give[\~^iv\~]v. 给,propose[\~prE5pEuz\~]v. 提议
[常用词组]offer itself/ themselves出现,发生/offer sb. one's hand 伸出手(为和某人握手)
3. link[\~liNk\~]v. 连接,联系
例:We should link theory with practice. 我们应该把理论和实践结合起来。
link sth. with sth. 为固定搭配,表示“把……与……连接”。
4. value[\~5vAlju:\~]n. 价值,价格,有用性
例:The house was sold for $200,000, which was far morn than its real value. 那所房子卖了200,000美元,这比它的实际价值要高得多。
[记忆技巧]同义词比较记忆:worth[\~wE:W\~]n. 价值,usefulness[\~5ju:sfJlnIs\~]n. 有用,importance[\~im5pC:tEns\~]n. 重要(性)
[常用词组]of value有益处的
5. opinion[\~E5pinjEn\~]n. 意见,看法,主张
例:Mr employer's opinion of my work does not matter to me at all. 我并不在乎老板对我的工作有什么意见。
[记忆技巧]同义词比较记忆:view[\~vju:\~]n. 观点,belief[\~bi5li:f\~]n. 信念,judgement[\~5dVQdVmEnt\~]n. 判断,idea[\~ai5diE\~]n. 思想,念头
[常用词组]in sb.'s opinion 依照某人的看法/be of (the) opinion that认为……
6. instead[\~in5sted\~]adv. 代替,顶替
例:The use of plastics for shoes instead of leather has ruined shoe repairing as a business. 用塑料代替皮革制鞋,使修鞋业不复存在了。
[记忆技巧]同义词比较记忆:also[\~5C:lsEu\~]adv. 也,还;too[\~tu:\~]adv. 也
affect常用作动词,例如:No doubt the present reform affects everyone. 毫无疑问,目前的改革影响着每一个人。 /The audience was deeply affected was deeply afected. 听众大受感动。effect多作名词解,表示某种原因产生的结果、效果,强调的是一种稳定持续的结果与影响。
例如:Our warning produced no effect on her at all. 我们的警告对她一点作用也没有。/His meeting with Lu Xun has a  great effect on his literary development.他同鲁迅的会面对他文学方面的发展有很大的影响。常与effect搭配的短语有:in effect生效/put/bring/carring...into effect 使...生效/take effect 生效。
这两个词都表示例子。example例子,实例,普通用语,主要指在同类事物中具有代表性、典型性的例子,能简明扼要地说明问题。example在教学中用得相当多,如:in the following example 在下例中
/in the above example在上例中/to offer a  good example   of...
举出一个好例子/Further examples are needed.需要进一步举例说明。/Her rudeness was a typical example of her usual bad manners. 她的粗野足以典型地说明她平日就不讲礼貌。instance例子,事例,实例,与example极为相近,常可以交换使用。但instance多指事实,诸如过去的某事件或例外的事实等,不像example那样强调代表性、典型性。没有通例的意思,只是举出一孤立事实说明问题。for instance也是常用语,仅指举例说明,for example却是从诸多事物中选出一例,说明一般。如: I can't think of an instance when mother was unfair.我想不出一件事例能说明母亲不公正。
这一对词语在语义上差异甚大。hard是常用语,含义较多,在句子中可充当形容词或副词。注意hard在下列句中的词性与含义:This material is as hard that it can be used for cutting steel.这种材料很硬,可以用来削切钢材。(形容词:硬的)/Though he finished his work, yet he found it hard.他虽然完成了工作,但觉得很难。(形容词:困难的)/ This problem demands a lot of hard thinking. 这个问题可伤脑筋了。(形容词:努力的)/The chemist tried very hard to make his analysis accurate.那化学家设法使他的分析准确。(副词:努力地)/It was a winter night.It was raining hard.那是个冬天的夜晚,雨下得很大。(副词:猛烈地)/hardly 简直没法(不能),几乎不,副词。scarcely和harely是它的同义词。例如:It is hardly possible that such a thing could have happened.发生这样的事不太可能。/I could hardly believe my ears when I heardthe  new.当我听到此消息时,我简直不相信自己的耳朵。
hardly也作刚刚,恰好解。He had hardly gone out when he was called back. 他刚走出门就被叫了回来。下列例句中同时含有hard和hardly这两个词,可作进一步比较:Andrew studies hard but his brother hardly studies.安德鲁学习用功,但他哥哥却很少学习。
immediately立即,马上,紧接着。例如:The meeting being over, I went home immediately.会议结束后,我马上就回家了。/I came back immediately after I had eaten.我一吃完饭就回来了。presently在古英语中可以表示“马上”之义,但在现代英语中,它的准确含义是“不久( soon)”,例如:You will know all about it presently.你很久就会了解事情的底细。/I'm busy now but I will come presently.我现在正在忙,不过我马上就来。在美国英语中, presently也作now解。如:The teacher is presently correcting the paper.老师此刻在阅卷。

Unit 17 Teacher
1. Before Annie Sullivn came to our house, one or two people had told my mother that I was simple-minded. 在安妮.沙利文来到我家之前,有一两个人。曾经告诉我妈妈,说我是一个头脑简单的人。
1) one or two people 一两个人。还可说:a person or two类似的还有:one or two days / a day or two 一两天
two or three tears / two tears or three 两三滴眼泪
2) simple - minded是一个合成形容词,意为“头脑简单的”,由“形容词 + 名词 + ed”构成。类似的还有:
kind - hearted (心地善良的)
three - legged (三条腿的)
White - haired (白头发的)
2. Struggling in a world of silence and darkness, I must have appeared to them to be simple. 我挣扎在一个听不到声音、看不见天日的世界里,对于他们来说,我准是一个头脑简单的人。
“must + have + 过去分词”结构,意思是“一定是……”,表示对过去事情的推测。例如:
He must have gone. 他一定走了。
She must have told you the result. 她一定告诉你结果了。
It can't be Mr. Wang. He has gone to Yichang. 那人不可能是王先生。他到宜昌去了。
— There were five people in the car, but they managed to take me as well. 当时车上已有五人,可他们还是把我也带上了。
— It couldn't be a confortable journey. 那一定不是一次舒适的旅行。
3. A born teacher, she thought she could turn a deaf - blind person into a useful human being. 她生来就是当老师的,她认为她可以把一个又聋又瞎的人变成一个有用的人。
“A born teacher”是“Being a born teacher”的省略。这个v.-ing形式短语相当于一个表示原因的状语从句:As she was a born teacher...。
He was a born scientist. (= He was born a scientist.)他天生就是科学家。
4. I remember the many times she tried to spell words into my small hand. 我记得她曾多次试着在我的小手上拼写单词。
“she tried to spell words into my small hand”是一个省略了关系副词when的定语从句,先行词是times。此处的time作“次、回”解,是可数名词,可以有复数形式。在time后常跟定语从句。
This is the first time that Mary has ever been to China. 这是玛丽第一次来中国。
5. Next Annie took me by the hand and taught me how to jump. 接着安妮牵着我的手,教我怎样跳跃。
在表达汉语中的“拉/握着某人的手/臂……”这个意思时,英语通常用“take sb. + 定冠词 + 身体部位”的结构。其中的定冠词不能用物主代词替代。例如:
He took the blind man by the right arm and crossed the street. 他搀着盲人的右臂走过街去。
She held him by the hand, not knowing what to say. 她握着他的手,不知道该说些什么。
6. She also brought me into touch with everything that could be felt - soil, wood, silk. 她还要我触摸一切可以感知的东西……土壤,木头,丝绸。
1) bring ... into/in touch with 使……触摸,使……接触,使认识。例如:
This brought me in touch with many workers in the factory. 这使我接触了这个厂里许多工人。
Her love of music brought her into touch with the pop star.她对音乐的爱好使她认识了这位歌星。
2) “that could be felt”是定语从句,修饰先行词everything。当先行词是不定代词everything,anything,something,nothing,all时,定语从句中的关系代词通常用that,而当that在定语从句中充当宾语时,常可省略。
They wanted to learn everything that interested them. 他们想学习一切令他们感兴趣的东西。
You can take anything (that) you like. 你喜欢的东西都可以拿去。
All that has to be done has been done. 所有该做的事情都已经做了。
7. As I look back upon those years, I am struck by Annie's wisdom. 当我回顾过去的那些岁月时,安妮的智慧使我惊汉不已。
1) look back upon/on回顾,回想过去。例如:
It is pleasant to look back on our childhood. 回忆童年是很有乐趣的。
Look forward. Don't look back. 朝前看,莫回头。
2) be struck by 是“被……打动”“被……迷住”的意思。例如:
We were struck by the beauty of the West Lake. 我们被西湖的美景给迷住了。
8. Two years later, her father disappeared, never to be heard from again. 两年后,她的父亲失踪了,再也没有他的音讯。
“never to be heard from again”是一个不定式短语作状语,表结果。例如:
She went to the station hurriedly, only to find the train had left. 她匆忙赶往火车站,结果发现火车早已开走了。
9. Later, an operation helped her to get back part of her sight, but she remained at the institution for six years more. 后来,动了一次手术,使她恢复了部分视力,可是她在那所盲人学院又呆了六年。
1) get back 在句中的意思是“恢复”。例如:
She has got her strength back after her illness. 她病后体力又恢复了。
get back还可作“回来”“收回”解。
Get back! The roof is falling. 回来!屋顶要塌了。
2) ramain在此是不及物动词,“仍然是”“保持”的意思。
Mr. White is now a manager but Tom remains a worker. 怀特先生已当经理了,可汤姆仍然是个工人。
3) 句中的介词短语for six years more = for six more years。
10. Annie considered this was just the kind of demanding job she wanted. 安妮认为这正是她要找的那种需要付出努力才能做好的工作。
This was a demanding work, but she didn't refuse it. 这是一件很费事的工作,但是她没有拒绝。
She had to look after the demanding child. 她不得不去照顾那个费神的孩子。
11. Annie was among the first to realize that blind people never know their hidden strength until they are treated like normal human beings. 双目失明的人,只有受到正常人一样的待遇时,才会知道自己蕴藏着的能量,而安妮正是最先认识到这一点的人们中的一个。
He is among the greatest leaders in the world. = He is one of the greatest leaders in the world. 他是世界上最伟大的领导人之一。
She is sitting among the students. 她坐在学生中间。
12. "No matter what happens," she aften said, "keep on beginning..." 她常说,“不论发生什么情况,都要坚持从头开始……”。
1) no matter这个词组的意思是“不管”“无论”,常用what,who,when,where等疑问词连用,引导一个表示让步的状语从句,分别表示“不管何事、何人、何时、何地”等意思。这种句子的结构是:
No matter what(who,when,where,etc.) + 主句。“No matter what...”这个让步状语从句也可以放置在主句之后,例如:
No matter what you do, do it well. 无论你干什么,你都应该把它干好。
I won't let you in, no matter who you are. 不管你是谁,我都不会让你进来。
2) keep on beginning (坚持从头开始)。
keep on在这里作“继续”“不顾困难而坚持下去或坚持做某事”解。例如:
You must keep on even if you fail. 即使你失败了,你还得坚持下去。
The teacher kept on asking the students questions until the bell rang. 老师不停地向学生提问,直到下课铃响。
keep doing sth. 的意思和用法与keep on doing sth.相同,但后者更多的强调重复性和决心。试比较:
He caught such a bad cold that he kept coughing all morning. 他患了重感冒,整个上午不停地咳嗽。
He kept on phoning me, but I really didn't want to talk to him. 他不断地给我打电话,我实在不想和他说话。
例:1.He gained his __ by printing __ of famous writers.
A.wealth; work B. wealths; works C.weather; work D. wealth; works
简析:wealth(财富)是不可属名词,不能在后面加s; work当工作讲时,是不可属名词。 这句话的意思是“他通过印刷著名作家的 著作而获得了财富。”所以work在这里是可属名词,后加s。答案是D。
例:2.She heard a terrible noise, __ brought her heart into her mouth.
A. it  B. which C. this D.that
简析:这是一个非限定性定语从句。定语从句中缺少主语。关系代词that只用于限定性定语从句中,不用于非限定性定语从句,而关系代词which即可用于限定性定语从句,又可用非限定性定语从句,which在定语从句中代表She heard a terrible noise. 这件事。答案为B。
例:3.We couldn't eat in a restaurant because ___ of us had ___ money.
A. all; no B. any; no C. none; any D. no one; any
简析:because none of us had any money意思是“我们都没钱。”说明不能不饭店吃饭的原因。不能用all, no填写,因为because all of us had no money表示部分否定,意思是“并不是我们每个人都没钱”。言外之意,有的有钱,有的没钱。也不能用no one, any 填写,因为不定代词no one不能用于of的前面。答案为C。
例: 4. Tom felt that he knew everybody's business better than they knew it __.
A.themselves B.oneself C. itself D. himself
yourselves; he用heself; she用herself;it用itself; we用ourselves; they用 themselves;如果把注意力放在everybody上,选himself,就错了。答案为A。
例:5. __ is mentioned above, the number of the students in senior school is increasing. (1999年全国高考题)
例:6. Recently I bought an ancient Chinese vase, __ was very reasonable.
A. which price B. the price of which C. its price D. the price of whose
简析:这是一个非限定性定语从句。在定语从句中表示谁的一般有两种情况;如果名词前没有冠词,就用whose, 如:The house, whose windows face south, is Mrs. Brown's ; 如果在名词前有冠词就用of which。如:The house,
the window of which face south, is Mrs. Brown's. 答案为B。
1. patience[\~5peiFEns\~]n. 容忍,耐心
例:I haven't the patience to hear your complaints agaon. 我没有耐心再听你的抱怨。
have the patience to do sth. 表示有耐心做什么事情。
[记忆技巧]同根词联合记忆:patient[\~5peiFEnt\~]a. 有耐心的,n.病人
[常用词组]be out of patience (with) 对……忍无可忍
2. keep[\~ki:p\~]v. 保持,保留
例:The police had to keep the crowd back. 警察不能不阻止人群前进。
keep后可接不同的介词,表示不同的意思。keep ... to呆在(家等)内,不离开;keep...under抑制;keep...back 阻止……前进;keep...on继续前进。
[记忆技巧]同义词比较记忆:maintain[\~men5tein\~]v. 保持;hold[\~hEuld\~]v. 保持;continue[\~kEn5tinju:\~]v. 继续。
[常用词组]keep away站开/keep from阻止/keep up坚持/keep on继续
3. gifted[\~5^IftId\~]a. 有才华的,有天赋的
例:She is gifted in music. 她在音乐方面有天赋。
[记忆技巧]同根词联合记忆:gift[\~^ift\~]n. 天资,天赋,才能。
4. leave[\~li:v\~]v. 离开,留下
例:If the boy had left the dog alone it wouldn't have bitten him. 如果这个男孩不去惹那只狗,它便不会咬他。
本题在dog后面是alone,left和the dog alone正好构成一个词组,意思是“别搅扰”。
[记忆技巧]同义词组比较记忆:depart from分离;escape from背离
[常用词组]leave...for...离开……到……/leave school离开学校/leave sb. sth.(或sth. with sb.)把某物交给某人。
5. send[\~send\~]v. 送,派遣,放出
例:The thief was sent to prison for two years. 那个贼被关进监牢关押两年。
sent和to prison构成一个词组时,意为“送进监狱”。
[记忆技巧]同义词比较记忆:transmit[\~trAnz5mit\~]v. 传送;convey[\~kEn5vei\~]v. 运送;throw[\~WrEu\~]v. 扔、掷
[常用词组]send off寄出,发出/send out发送,送出/send away把……送往远处
6. consider[\~kEn5sidE\~]v. 考虑,认为
例:I have always considered you my best friend. 我一直把你当作我最好的朋友。
[记忆技巧]同义词比较记忆:think[\~WiNk\~]v. 想;suppose[\~sE5pEuz\~]v. 认为;regard[\~ri5^B:d\~]v. 认定
[常用词组]consider...as 把……当作……
normal正常的,正规的,常指某人、某物的表现形式与所确立的标准一致或自身要求与指标相符。该词的暗示某人或某事物在常态中不能超过或低于那标准,否则就会出差错。例:The normal temperture of the human body is 36.5℃。人体正常温度为36.5度。/These children are quite normal; there is nothing wrong with them in mind or in body.这些孩子发育很正常,智力和身体没什么缺陷。normal也可用作名词,意为正常,常态。如:The rain has raised the river 3 feet above normal.雨水使河水上涨,现已超出标准水位三尺。normal作名词时的常用短语有:off normal不正常/return to normal恢复正常/under normal conditions在正常情况下。ordinary普通的,平常的,该词强调某人某物与一般标准相同,是每日可见的,无特殊可言。例如:He made a very ordinary speech.他的演说平平。/The novelist's lateast book is quite ordinary.这位小说家的最新作品极为平常。常用短语有:in an ordinary way在一般情况下out of ordinary 异常的,少见的/nothing out of ordinary平平常常的
这两个词用作动词时含义并不相同。print印刷,出版。是把文字、图画等做成版然后涂上油墨印在纸上。type打印。表示以打字机等为工具代替书写工作。例如:This kind of machine can print 70 pages in a minute.这种机器每分钟能印70页。/This book was printed in five wolumes.此书印成了五册。
/Would you type the material out for me.你替我将材料打出来好吗?/The modern computer can even type letters you dictate to it, and that in any language you choose.现在计算机甚至还能打出你口述的信件,并能用你选择的任何语言打出。
New houses are going up everywhere. 到处都在建新房屋。/Have you moved into the new house? 你搬进新房子里了吗?/His house was burned, so he made his home in his office for the time being.他家的房子被烧了,因此他暂时在办公室安家。home的意思是家,指一个人(或一家人)居住的地方,但不一定含有住宅的意味。它指一个人出生或长大的地方(包括国家),有浓厚的感情色彩。例如:East or west, home is best.金窝银窝,不如自己的穷窝。/There is no place like home.在家千日好,出门时时难。/He looks forward to seeing the old home again.他盼望能再回去看看老家。常见词组:
 (be) at home在家里,(在... 方面或中间)熟悉,不觉拘束。/bring (sth.)home to sb. 使人十分清楚地认识到。
4.辨析reach与 arrive:
这两个词都有“到”的 意思。reach表示到达什么地点时,是及物动词,后面直接跟表示地点的名词。例如:In october 1935 the Red Amy reached northern ShanBei.一九三五年十月红军到达陕北。/When does the train reach London?火车什么时候到达伦敦?arrive是不及物动词,表示到达什么地点时,后面应接介词in或at, 例如:He arrived in Beijing yesterday.他昨天到达北京。/We arrived at the station in hot haste.我们急急忙忙赶到车站。

Unit 18 Office equipments
1. Offices cannot work properly without certain important pieces of equipment. 没有某些重要的办公设备,办公室的工作就不可能正常开展。
1) work 作不及物动词时,有“工作、干活”“起作用、运转”的意思。例如:
The medicine doesn't work. 那种药不起作用。
The radio I bought yeaterday won't work now. 我昨天买的那台收音机现在已不工作了。
2) equipment 是不可数名词,意为“设备,仪器”。
They sent us a lot of equipment. 他们给我们送来了大量的仪器。
2. Once you have done this, you will quickly become a useful member of the team. 一旦你学会使用了,你就会很快地成为班子里有用的一员。
Once you see him, you will never foget him. 一旦你见到他,你就永远忘不了。
Once he said that, I knew he was lying. 他一提到那件事,我就知道他在撒谎。
I have been there once. 我曾去过那儿一次。
His father once worked in a car factory in Hainan. 他父亲在海南的一家汽车厂工作过。
3. It is better  to ask for help at the beginning rather than to wait until a busy period when everyone is rushed off their feet. 最好在开始工作时就去请求帮助,而不要等大家都手脚忙乱的时候去找人帮忙。
1) rather than而不是,与其……不如。这是一个连词词组,用来连接两个并列的成分,表示在两者间进行选择。
John must go rather that Jack. 必须去的是约翰不是杰克。
I love swimming rather than skating. 我喜欢游泳,而不喜欢滑冰。
2) rush sb. off his feet 意思是“使忙得不亦乐乎”“使忙得不可开交”,常以被动形式出现,用于非正式文体。
They're rushed off their feet with their lessons. 他们正为作业忙得不可开交。
4. It is also useful for sending pictures, designs, maps and so on. 它(传真机)可以用来传送图片、图样、地图等等。
1) It is useful for sth./doing sth. 对于……来说是有用的,例如:
It is useful for reading. 这对于阅读来说是很有益处的。
2) and so on是“等等”的意思,常用来表列举。例如:
I have been to Guilin, Huangshan, Hangzhou and so on.我去过桂林、黄山、杭州等地。
5. There are two other points to consider. (不过)有两点需要考虑。
I'm considering it. 我正在考虑此事。
He considered makng a model plane. 他考虑制作航空模型。
I consider him (to be) a fool. 我认为他是个傻瓜。
Peter is considered to have brought this VCD. 大家都认为是彼特带来的VCD机。
6. When you have finished the letter, you make any changes you wish, check it and print it. 信打完后,你可以随意修改,进行校对,然后印刷出来。
句中的change是名词,常和动词make搭配,构成“make a change”词组,意思是“作修改”。如:
We have made some changes in our plan for study. 我们已对我们的学习计划作了一些修改。
Several importnt changes have been made in the design of the building. 在那座建筑物的设计中作了若干重大的修改。
7. When you return to the office the following morning or after the holiday, you can listen to the messages and take any necessary action. 第二天早晨,或者在节假日以后,当你回到办公室的时候,你就可以听留言,然后采取必要的措施。
1) the following morning (= the next morning)次晨,第二天早晨。在句中作状语,修饰谓语去词return。“前一天早晨”则应为“the morning before”。
2) 名词action(行动)和动词take搭配,构成固定词组take action(采取行动),在action之前可用形容词或不定式来修饰。例如:
Why didn't you take any action to put out the fire? 你为什么不采取灭火措施呢?
I felt that it was time for me to take action. 我觉得当时是我应该采取行动的时候了。
8. What is more, this "information line" operates 24 hours a day. 再说,这条“问讯线路”是一天24小时工作的。
“What is more”是一个固定表达,作“再说”“而且”“更有甚者”解,在句中作插入语,表示出了上文所说的情况外还有进一步的情况。例如:
He came home after midnight, and what's moe, he was drunk. 他后半夜才回来,而且醉醺醺的。
另外,还有一个固定表达:“what is worse”,意思是“更糟糕的是”。例如:
He is not good at maths. What's worse, he is very poor in English. 他不擅长数学。更糟糕的是,他的英语也很差。
9. A navy ship was in a port in Scotland for repairs. 一艘海军舰艇在苏格兰的一个港口进行修理。
The shop is closed during repairs. 本店维修,暂停营业。
The car needs a lot of repairs. 这部汽车需要大修。
The house has been out of repair for many years. 这座房子已是年久失修了。
— Has the watch been repaired yet? 那只表修好了吗?
— No, not yet. 还没有。
10. It was important to carry out the work quickly, so an extra team of men were asked to work on the repairs one evening. 修理工作必须加快进行。因此,有天晚上要求多派了一队维修工来工作。
1) carry out是短语动词,作“进行,开展,执行(计划,命令)”解,例如:
carry out the plan 执行计划
carry out one's promise 履行诺言
carry out experiments 做实验
2) work on 是短语动词,作“从事(某要作)”“致力于”解,可以有多种译法。这个短语动词中的on是介词,后跟名词、代词或v-ing形式。例如:
They are working on a report of theexperiment. 他们在写一份实验报告。work on也可作“继续工作”解,其中的on是副词,有“继续地”意思。如:walk on(继续走),stay on(继续逗留),talk on(继续谈话)等。例如:
I'll have to work on till the report is ready. 我得继续工作,直到把报告写好为止。
11. One man was told to fix up an "air line" to provide compressed air for the machines they were using. 有一位工人被派去安装一条“空气管”,给他们正在使用的机器提供压缩空气。
1) provide sth. for/to sb. (= provide sb. with sth.)是“为某人提供某物”“给某人准备某物”的意思。例如:
Our parents provide food and clothing for us. (= Our parents provide us for food and clothing.)父母为我们提供衣食。
Can you  provide lunch for the 20 travellers? 你能为那二十名旅客提供午餐吗?
2) fix up在句中作“安装”“装修”解。例如:
Some friends helped me to fix up the house. 几个朋友帮我把房子修理好了。
12.  As quickly as they could, the men ran to the steps and up into the open, many of them with their clothes on fire. 工人们尽快往楼梯那儿跑,爬上去,来到舱外,许多人的衣服都着火了。
1) as quickly s they could (run) = as quickly as possible 是表达方式的状语从顺。类似的表达有:
as soon as you can (= as soon as possible)
as loudly as they could (= as loudly as possible)
2) many of them with their clothes on fire 是复合结构,作状语,表示伴随情况。它是由“名词(或代词)+介词短语”构成的。例如:
A stranger came in, his hands in his pockets. 一个陌生人走了进来,两只手插在裤兜里。
The old woman sat in the chair, tears still on her cheeks. 那位老太太坐在椅子上,仍然满面泪痕。
13. It was noticed that there were no signs or warnings on the supply lines that ran round the port. 人们这时才注意到,环绕港口的各种传输管道上都没有任何标记或警告。
It is/was noticed that...(人们注意到……)是一个主语从句结构,类似的结构常用的还用:It is/ was reported that...(据报道……),It is known that...(众所周知……)等。例如:
It is announced that American president Cliton will pay an official visit to China in June.据宣布,美国总统克林顿将于六月对中国进行正式访问。
It was said that she had taken the first place in the contest. 据说,她在竞赛中获一等奖。
另外,还有一种常用的主语从句结构:It is/was + adj./n. + that - clause. 例如:
It is clear that the building looks like a school. 显然那座建筑物看起来像一所学校。
例:1. The train leaves at 6:00 pm. So I have to be at the station __ 5:40 pm at the latest. ( 1997年全国高考题)
A. unitl  B. after C. by D. around
简析:如果填until,其句子意思是“因此我不得不在5:40前要呆在车站”。after的意思是“在...之后”,around的意思是“大约”,在它的前面加at才能表示时间。因此选项A、B、D 都不能作答案,by的意思是“到...为止”,也就是:在5:40前我必须到达车站。答案C。
例:2. Shortly after the accident, two __ police were sent to the spot to keep order.
A.dozen of  B. dozens C.dozen D.dozens of
简析:dozen和hundred, thousand, million, score的用法一样。如果在它的前面有数词two, three, four等或形容词some, many, several等时要用单数,不能在后面加s; 如果后接of要用复数,构成hundreds of; thousands of; millions of;
dozens of; scores of 等。因为在dozen前有数词two, 所以选单数C。
例:3. __ of the land in that district ___ covered with trees and grass. (2000年上海市高考题)
A. Two fifth; is   B. Two fifth; are   C.Two fifths; is   D.Two fifths; are
is, 答案为C。
例:4.Many people agree that__ knowledge of English is a must in __ international trade today. (1996年全国高考题)
A.a; / B. the; an C. the; the D./; the
简析:knowledge是不可数名词,不能在前面加不定冠词a, 但在这个句子中,knowledge后有修饰词of English,因而使knowledge具体化,所以要在它前面加不定冠词a, in international trade“国际贸易中”不用冠词,a must 是必须的事物。答案选A。
例:5.Tom's mother kept telling him that he should work harder, but __ didn't help. (1993年全国高考题)
A. the B. which C. she D.it
简析:it是代词,指代Tom's mother kept telling him that he should work harder这句话。做这类题时要特别注意:如果有并列连词and; but等词时,构成并列词,构成定语从句,要填which。如:Tom's mother kept telling him that he should work harder, which didn't help. 答案选D。
例:6.Although he is considered a great writer, ___. (1991年全国高考题)
A.his works are not widely read B. but his works are not widely read
C. however his works are not widely read D.still his works are not widely read
简析:含有although、though等词引导的让步状语从句的句子,不能和but, however, still, and等并列连词连用。但可以和副词yet连用。如:Although he failed in the English exam, yet he didn't give up learning it. 虽然他在英语考试中不及格,然而他并没有放弃对英语的学习。答案是A。
1. obtain[\~Eb5tein\~]v. 获得
例:We can obtain knowledge through practice. 我们可以通过实践获得知识。
[记忆技巧]词源分析记忆:ob-加强语气;-tain抓。同义词比较记忆:acquire[\~E5kwaiE\~]v. 取得,获得,得到;get[\~^et\~]v. 得到
2. combine[\~kEm5bain\~]v. 使结合,使联合
例:The presently ccepted theory of light combines some of the ideas of both earlier theories. 目前被人们接受的这种光学理论是早期两种理论中某些概念的结合。
combine 结合,联合。combine在这儿是及物动词。
[记忆技巧]同义词比较记忆:unite[\~ju(:)5nait\~]v. 联合;join[\~dVCin\~]v. 使结合;mix[\~miks\~]v. 使混合;involve[\~in5vClv\~]v. 包含
3. open[\~5EupEn\~]a. 开着的,开阔的,开放的
例:Because of the fine weather, we had all our classes in the open air. 由于天气晴朗,我们在室外外上课。
in the open air 在户外
[记忆技巧]同义词比较记忆:unclosed[\~5Qn5klEuz\~]a. 未关的;unrestricted[\~5Qnris5triktid\~]a. 不受限制的;free[\~fri:\~]a. 自由的
[常用词组]be open to 对……开放的/keep one's eyes open 保持警惕
4. requirement[\~ri5kwaiEmEnt\~]n. 需要,要求,必要的条件
例:One of the essential requirements of good news writing is accuracy. 准确性是优秀新闻报道的必要条件之一。requirement是可数名词,表示必要的条件。
[记忆技巧]同根词联合记忆:require[\~ri5kwaiE\~]v. 需要,要求
5. explain[\~iks5plein\~]v. 解释,说明,辩解
例:The information - office at the station explained that all trains were running about one hour behind time. 车站问讯处解释说,所有的火车晚点一小时左右。
[记忆技巧]同义词比较记忆:interpret[\~in5tE:prit\~]v. 解释;clarify[\~5klArifai\~]v. 阐明;account for说明
[常用词组]explain oneself 为自己的行为辩解
6. match[\~mAtF\~]v. 使较量,和……相配
例:Her shoes match her gloves; they look very well together. 她的鞋子和手套颜色相配,看上去十分协调。
[记忆技巧]形近词比较记忆:march[\~mB:tF\~]n. 行军;much[\~mQtF\~]a. 许多
在...以前,到...(才)等意思。在普通文体里,till用得较多。例如:I shall wait till 11 o'clock,我将等到十一点钟。/Don't wake him till midnight.午夜前不要叫醒他。/I did not know till now.我直到现在才知道。until也用作介词或连接词,与till同义,但它多用于比较正式的文件里,且句首一般不用till而用until。例如:I shall stay here until twelve o'clock。 我将在这里一直呆到十二点钟。/Wait here until I come.在这里等到我来。/Until you told me, I had no idea of it. 在你告诉我之前,我对此一无所知。
这两个词在含义上有一定的 联系,区别如下:especially尤其是,尤有甚者。含有与其他同类相比,“某人、某物、某情况更加之义。例如:You need to be especiallyi careful when crossing the road. 过马路时你要特别小心。
/They all wanted to know about you, especially your working habit.他们都想知道你的情况,尤其是你的工作习惯。
specially表示专门地为某种特殊目的。例如:You need not go there specially.
你不需要特意到那儿去。/ That ball is going to be held specially for you.舞会将专门为你举行。在表示某事特别重要或不同寻常时especially和specially可以通用。例如:I must see him at once; this matter is especially /specially important.我必须马上去见他,这事特别重要。但是在正式文体中,
especially的使用较specially要多,例如:especially on Friday特别是在星期五
/especially in America尤其在美国。
quick的意思是快的,迅速的,一般用于即将发生的事情或占用较短时间的事情。它表示爽快或快速敏捷等意思,尤指在行动方面,也可指速度快。在口语中它常用以代替quick。例如:Be quick!快点!/Please give me a quick reply.请迅速给我答复。/We had a quick meal. 我们吃了一顿快餐。/You're walking too quick for me.你走得太快了,我跟不上。fast的意思是快的,迅速的,表示运动的速度快,多指在运动中的人,动物或其他东西。例如:
This is a fast horse.  这是一匹快马。/He will take a fast train.他将乘快车。/
My watch is five minutes fast.我的表快五分钟。
Meat is dear this week.这星期肉很贵。/Fresh strawberries are dear in winter.
冬天鲜草莓价格昂贵。/In the middle of the summer, fresh oranges are dear,
but in the winter months thy are cheap.夏天鲜桔价高,而冬天却很便宜。
This is an expensive hat.这是一顶价格昂贵的帽子。/He had a very expensive
pocketknife which costs $100.他有把奢华的小刀,价格为100美元。/He bought a very expensive new car.他刚买了辆豪华新轿车。

Unit 19 New Zealand
1. The earliest people of New Zealand, the Maori, came from the islands of Polynesia in the Pacific, which means "many islands". 新西兰最早的居民是毛利人,他们来自太平洋中部和南部,亦即在南美与澳洲之间广大三解地区的大片岛群。Polynesia这个词源自希腊文的Poly(意为many,众多的)和nesia(island群岛)
2. The language which the Maori speak is related to the languages of Tahiti and Hawaii. 毛利人所说的语言同塔希堤岛和夏威夷的语言是同源的。
句中relate是及物动词,作“把……联系起来”解,常构成短语be related to,意思是“和……有联系”“和……有关系”。例如:
I can't relate those two ideas. 我没法把那两种想法联系起来。
This fact is related to that one. 这个事实与那个事实是互相关联的。
What he does can't be related to what he says. 他所做的和他所说的联系不起来。
The Dutch language is closely related to German. 荷兰语同德语有着密切的关系。
The relation of mother and child is the closest in the world. 母子关系是世界上最亲密的关系。
There is no relation between these two things. 这两件事之间并无联系。
He is a near relation of mine. 他是我的近亲。
One of my relation is coming for dinner. 我的一位亲戚要来吃晚饭。
Is he a relation/relative of yours? 他是你的亲戚吗?
We have not many relatives/relations in Beijing. 在北京我们没有很多亲戚。
3. Maori families enjoy sharing what they own and looking after one another. 毛利人的家庭喜欢分享他们拥有的东西,并乐意彼此照顾。
enjoy vt. 是“欣赏、喜欢”的意思,后面常跟名词/代词/v.-ing形式作宾语。本句enjoy后跟两个v.-ing形式短语sharing what they own及looking after one another. 这儿的v.-ing形式不能用不定式代替。例如:
They didn't enjoy the performance last night. 他们不欣赏昨晚的演出。
But the natives enjoyed it (the performance) very much. 但是当地人非常欣赏它(那场演出)。
Joan enjoys listening to music, but Jane enjoys reading novels. 琼喜欢听音乐,简喜欢看小说。
除动词enjoy外,通常后面要跟v.-ing形式的动词或短语动词还有:consider / dislike / fell / like / finish / give up /go / imagine / mind / practise / risk / spend / suggest等。例如:
Martin considered coming to China to study Chinese. 马丁曾经考虑过来中国学习中文。
I dislike arguing about money. 我不喜欢为金钱而争论。
He has finished mending the car. 他已经修完汽车了。
Have you decided to give up smoking? 你下决心戒烟了吗?
4. The common meeting place for Maori is on the marae, an area of land with a meeting house, where all the important events take place. 毛利人的公众聚会的场所是麦利公堂——在一片空地上盖有一个会堂,一切重大的活动都在这儿举行。
marae读作[\~mA5ri\~],是塔希提语和毛利语。据Webster's New 3rd International Dictionary,marae有以下两个解释:(1)a Polynesian temple enclosure used for worship or sacrifice or other religious ceremonies(波利尼西亚人的有围墙的寺庙,用来作礼拜、祭祀或举行其他宗教仪式);(2)a square or similar open area before  Maori tribe or family meeting house used for formal reception of guests or other formal functions.(毛利人一个部落或一个家庭的聚会堂前的方形场地或类似的空地,用来正式接待嘉宾或举行其他正式的庆祝仪式)。
5. This is how they keep their way of life alive. 他们就是这样保持自己的生活方式的。
1) alive adj. 表示“活的,活着;有活力的,有生气的”的意思。这是一个表语形容词(用作表语或宾语补足语),不能放在名词之前作定语。
我们可以说:The fish is still alive. 这条鱼还活着。(作表语)
也可以说:Let's keep the fish alive. 咱们把这条鱼养着吧。(作宾语补足语)
但不能说:This is an alive fish. 这是一条活鱼。(alive不能作定语)
可以说:This is a live fish. 这是一条活鱼,(live[\~liv\~]是定语形容词,作“活的”,“活着的”解。)类似的以a-开头的表语形容词还有:afraid,alone,asleep,awake等。例如:
The baby is asleep. 婴儿睡着了。(试比较:a sleeping baby 一个睡着的婴孩)
I don't think he is awake. 我想他还没有醒来。
2) keep sth. alivee (或be kept alive)是“使(某物)继续有效,存在,进行”的意思。又如:
We must always keep alive the memory of the bitter past. 我们一定要牢记旧社会的苦。
We must keep the good revolutionary traditions alive. 我们一定要保持优良的革命传统。
6. Special days for Maori are called "huis". A "hui" may be a weddin, burial or conference. 毛利人的特殊节目都叫做“会”。一个“会”可以是婚礼、葬礼、会议。
句中的hui读作[\~5hui:\~],是夏威夷语和毛利语,意为“社区的集会,大会”(community gathering; assembly)。
7. Many people will sleep and eat on the marae during these three days share their memories of the dead person. 这三天里,许多人吃,睡都在麦利会堂,共同悼念死者。
He always happy and never shared his parents' worries. 他总是乐呵呵的,从不分担父母亲的忧愁。
The two chemists shared the Nobel Prize. 这两位化学家共同获得诺贝尔奖。
They shared the same tastes and interests. 他们有着共同的爱好和兴趣。
He shared his story with us. (= He told us about his story.)他把他的身世告诉我们了。
8. In 1893 New Zealand was the first nation in modern times to allow women to vote, long before many other countries. 1893年,新西兰成为现代史上第一个允许妇女有选举权的国家,比许多其他国家都要早。
time作“时代”解时,常用复数形式,如本句中的in modern times (在现代)。但有时也用单数形式表示“时代”的,如in Shakespeare time(在莎士比亚时代),例如:
In quite old times people lived on hunting and fishing. 在很早的时代,人们靠渔猎为生。
His thought is aheand of his times. 他的思想走在时代前面。
We should try to meet the requirements of the times. 我们应该力争符合时代的要求。
It happened at the time of King Alfred. 它发生在阿尔弗雷德王的时代。
9, In 1898 a law was passed which meant that all people above a certain age were paid a weekly: "old age persion". 1898年,通过了一项法律,规定一定年龄以上的人都按周付给“养老金”。
本句是一个复合句。主句是“... a law was passed”, 后跟一个分隔式定语从句“... which meant...'old-age pension'”,修饰先行词law。在这个定语从句中,又包含一个由that引导的宾语从句“... that all people... were paid a weekly old-age pension”,作meant的宾语。
10. Some farmers have turned to keeping deer and there are now about 3,000 deer farms in the country. 有些农场主已经转而养鹿了,该国现在约有3,000个养鹿场。
句中的短语动词“turn to”作“转到”“(把……)转向”解,其中的to是介词,后跟名词或v.-ing形式。例如:
Our talk soon turned to the changes of the farm. 我们的谈话很快就转到农场的变化上来了。
Now we should turn our attention to improving the quality of the wool. 现在我们应该把注意力转到改进羊毛的质量上来。
After he left school he became a teacher, but later he turned to driving. 他毕业后当过教师,后来转行当司机。
turn可以作及物动词,不及物动词和连系动词,还可以构成许多短语(如turn on/off, turn into, turn over等)。
11. Apart from their milk, the wool from their coats is used in expensive clothing. 除了羊奶外,山羊绒还可以用来制作昂贵的服装。
apart from作“除……之外”解,在意思上相当于besides。例如:
Apart from English, he is good at French. 除了英语外,他的法语也很好。
He has no other interests, apart from his work. 除了自己的工作外,他没有其他的爱好。
Apart from me, these were ten people at the meeting. 除了我以外,会上还有10个人。
12. New Zealand wine is of high quality and is sold all over the world. 新西兰的葡萄酒质量很好,销往世界各地。
“of high quality”这类“of+n.”结构常用来描写一个人,一件物的特征。在句中可以作表语(如本句),也可以作定语。例如:
They are both of middle height.(作表语)他们都两人都是中等身材。
The work I am doing is not of very much value. (作表语)我所从事的工作没有多大价值。
George is a man of great courage.(作定语)乔治是一个勇气非凡的人。
I have something of great importance to discuss with you.(作定语)我有件非常重要的事情要同你讨论。
13. In summer, people like to go sailing, swimming, horse-riding, and rock-climbing in the mountains. 夏天,人们喜欢去航海、游泳、骑马和到山里攀登岩壁。
句中的go sailing,go swimming这类“go + v.-ing”结构表示“去干某事”的意思,大多数跟体育,娱乐活动有关。例如:
Did you go dancing last night?昨天你去跳舞了吗?
Let's go mountain-climbing next weekend. 下周末咱们去爬山吧。
go boating (去划船)
go camping (去露营)
go cycling (去骑车)
go dancing (去跳舞)
go fishing (去钓鱼)
go hunting (去打猎)
go riding (去骑马)
go sailing (去航海)
go shooting (去射击)
go shopping (去购物)
go skating (去滑冰)
go swimming (去游泳)
go walking (去散步)
例:1.___ , mother will wait for him to have dinner together.
A.However late is he B. However late he is
C. However is he late D. However he is late
简析:whatever, wherever, whenever, whoever, however可引导让步状语从句,意思是“无论(做什么,在哪儿,在什么时候,谁,如何)”,起到加强语气的作用,在这些句子中要用陈述句的语序。这句话的意思是:“无论他回来多晚,他妈妈都将等他一起吃饭。”答案B。
例:2. __ to take this adventure course will certainly learn a lot of useful skills.
A. Brave enough students     B.Enough brave students
C. Students brave enough    D.Students enough brave
例:3.-David has made great progress recently. (1997年上海市高考题)
- __, and __.
A. So he has; so you have  B.So he has; so have you
C. So has he; so have you D. So has he; so you have
例:4.I thought her nice and honest __  I met her.   (1998年上海市高考题)
A. first time  B. for the first time C. the first time D. by the first time
“第一次”英语为the first time. I met her the first time 相当于一个时间状语从句“When I first met her.” for the first time意思是“作为第一次”。如:He cast
his net for the first time.“他撒了 第一网”。答案C。
例:5.He made another wonderful discovery, ___ of great importantce to science.
简析:这是一个非限定性定语从句,关系代词which在定语从句中作主语。代表the discovery。如果改成两个简单句应为:He made another wonderful discovery. I think the discovery is of great importance to science. 在做这类题目时,可先将插入语I think去掉,就成了He made another wonderful
discovery, which is of great inportant to science. Of great importantce to science.
of great importance=very important, 既of后接抽象名词等于一个形容词。
如:of great value=valuable。答案A。
例:6.It was a matter of __ would take the position. (1998年上海市高考题)
A. who B.whoever C. whom D. whomever
1. sign[\~sain\~]v. 打手势,示意,签名
例:The teacher signed to us to sign our names on the papers. 老师示意我们把自己的名字写在试卷上。
[记忆技巧]同义词比较记忆:indicate[\~5indikeit\~]v. 指示;mean[\~mi:n\~]v. 意味着;signal[\~5si^nl\~]v. 发信号
[常用词组]sign to sb. 向某人作手势
2. quality[\~5kwCliti\~]n. 品质,质量
例:The goods are of poor quality. 这批货物质量很差。
[记忆技巧]形近词对比记忆:quantity[\~5kwCntiti\~]n. 数量
[常用词组]be of high (poor) quality 质量好(差)
3. settle[\~5setl\~]v. 安排,解决,定居
例:If you don't leave you'll see the problem settled by us. 假如你不走,你就会看到我们解决问题。
本句中,问题(problem)应由我们(by us)解决,因此,settle应用过去分词形式。
[记忆技巧]同义词比较记忆:fix[\~fiks\~]v. 固定;set[\~set\~]v. 放置;locate in定居
[常用词组]settle down 定居,成家
4. export[\~5ekspC:t\~]n. 输出,出口,输出口
例:Tea is an Indian export. 茶叶是印度的出口商品。
[记忆技巧]形近词对比记忆:import[\~im5pC:t\~]n. 进口,输入
5. relate[\~ri5leit\~]v. 有关,涉及
例:Anything relating to maths is a complete mystery to me. 任何与数学有关的事对我来讲都是个谜。
[记忆技巧]同根词联合记忆:relation[\~ri5leiFEn\~]n. 关系
[常用词组]be related to与……有关
6. pension[\~5penFEn\~]n. 养老金;v. 给予……养老金
例:Workers in the company are being pensioned off at 50. 公司职员50岁时领养老金退休。
country表示国家,包括领土和人民,着重指疆土。该词概念极为广泛,可用于各种文体,有时作“祖国”讲,带感情色彩。如:China is a great with a long history. 中国是一个历史悠久的伟大国家。/His father's country was France. 他父亲的祖国是法国。/After many years abroad, he wanted to return home to his country.在国外呆了多年以后,他想回到自己的祖国去。country来源于拉丁文contra,是独立的意思,即某地区与其他地区极不相同从而独立存在。nation指在某一国土上定居的人民,以及代表他们的独立政权。
nation原指具有拉丁文nasci,意思是出生,nation原指具有相同血缘的民族,因此它强调一个国家中的人民,概念较country狭窄。如:the Chinese nation 中华名族。 The whole nation rose to resist aggression.全民奋起抗击侵略。/The president spoke on radio to the nation.总统通过广播向全国人民讲话。但在国际交往正式场合下,nation语体庄重,较country用得多。如:
the United Nations联合国/a most favoured nation最惠国/the law of nations国际公法
between的意思是在...中间,在...之间,一般指在两者之间。例如:There is a table between the two windows.在两扇窗户之间有一张桌子。/We have our breakfast between seven and half past seven.我们在七到七点半之间吃早饭。
 between有时也表示在多于两个以上的事物之间,但那是指在每二者之间。例如:the relationship between different provinces and municiplities省市和省市之间的关系(这里是指每两个省市之间的相互关系。)among的意思是在...之间、在...之中,一般是在三个或三个以上的同类事物之中。例如:
Divide these among you three.这些东西你们三人分吧。/The teacher distributed them among the students. 教师把这些东西分给了学生。
disease泛指各种原因已查明的急性或慢性疾病,又可指传染病,甚至动植物的各种病害,概念十分广泛。如:an acute disease急性病/a chronic disease慢性病/plant disease植物病害/His suffering is caused by the wound and not by the disease.他的痛苦是由创伤而非疾病所引起的。/The ultimate causes of cancer and other diseases are still unknown.癌症与其他某些疾病的根本原因始终不明。illness泛指疾病,极为普通常用,多指慢性病,或身体的极度虚弱等,但不影响日常的活动。它有时可与disease交替使用。如:
These has been a lot of illness in the family recently.最近以来这家人常生病。
/An illness that caused him little difficulty in his youth began to take its toll as he
reached middle age.有种病在他年轻时影响并不大,但等他到了中年,却成了他的负担。
university大学,综合性大学,通常指由多个学院(college)组合而成的综合性大学。它概念广泛,指最高水平的学校,可授予各种学位,也指大学的全体教师和学生。如:Beijing University北京大学/Harvard University哈佛大学/He granduated from Yale University in 1965.他在1965年从耶鲁毕业。
/The whole university is against the changes.整个大学都反对这种变革。
college。a medical college医学院/teachers training  college师范学院
/business college商学院/There are many colleges at Oxford and Cambridge.

Unit 20 Gandhi
1. Mohandas Gandhi was born in India in 1869 and was married at the age of 13, following local custom. 莫汉达斯.甘地于1869年出生于印度,按照当地习俗,他在13岁时就结婚了。
1) marry vt. 表示“和……结婚”的意思,常用于下列结构:be/get married,表示结婚,或表示已婚状态。如果要表示“和某人结婚”,则用“marry sb.”或“be/get married to sb.”,例如:
Joan is going to marry Hubert. 琼打算和休伯特结婚。
— Ishe married or single? 他已婚还是独身?
— He is married. 他已婚。
— How long have you been married to Sheila? 你同希拉结婚多久了?
— For twenty years. 二十年了。
2)句中的“following local custom”是一个v.-ing形式短语,作表示原因的状语。动词follow在句中作“遵循”“依照……行事”解。例如:
Following the doctor's advice, my father has given up drinking. 听从医生的劝告,我父亲戒了酒。
They followed the order and destroyed the bridge. 他们奉命把桥炸毁了。
2. On his return to India he had the chance to travel to South Africa to work on a law case. 他一回到印度,就得到一个去南非的机会,到那里去处理一个案子。
1)  “on his return”中的介词on表示时间,意思是“在……的时候”(at the beginning of)或“一……就”(directly after),强调两个动作先后随即发生。例如:
I heard the news on my arrival at the airport. 我一到机场就听到了这条消息。
On reaching the city he called up Mr. Jackson. 他一到达那个城市,就给杰克逊先生打电话。
2) work on 作“从事(某项工作)”解,后跟名词或v.-ing形式,可根据情况有不同的译法。例如:
We are working on a new plan for travel. 我们正在制定一个新的旅行计划。
When did they begin to work on the new design? 他们是什么时候开始进行新的设计的呢?
上述例句中的“work on”都是“动词+介词”构成的短语动词,作“从事(某项工作)”解。
但“work on”也可以是“动词+副词”的短语动词,作“继续工作”解(work continuously)。例如:
He stayed in the lab and worked on till midnight. 他呆在实验室里一直工作到半夜。
3. This experience was to change his life. 这个经历后来改变了他的生活道路。
“was to change”是一个“be + 不定式”的结构,这种结构通常用来表示安排要在将来做的事情(be用现在式),也可以表示曾经计划要做的事情(be用过去式)。例如:
The manager is to visit our factory next week. 经理将于下周来我厂参观。
但是本句中的“was to change”这个“be+不定式”结构并不表示曾经计划要做的事情,而表示不可避免地将要发生的事,不是指事先做好的安排,而是指“命中注定的事”。例如:
The worst is still to come.  最坏的事不可避免地会发生。
They said good-bye, not knowing that they were never to meet again. 他们道别了,但是他们不知道他们将永别了。
Tell her she's not to be back late. 告诉她,不能晚回来。
4. Gandhi was thrown off a train and later a mall bus for insisting on travelling in the whites - only section. 甘地在旅行时,由于坚持要坐在白人座位区,曾经先后两次被人从一列火车和一辆邮车上扔了下去。
insist on/upon作“一定要”“坚持要求”解(strongly demand),后面通常跟名词或v.-ing形式。也可跟that从句。例如:
They insisted on their right to vote. 他们坚持要求要有选举权。
He insisted upon staying in London. 他坚持要留在伦敦。
5. He wrote about socialism in newspapers and started a magazine called "Indian Opinion". 他为报纸写文章宣扬社会主义,还创办了一个叫“印度舆论”的杂志。
called "Indian Opinion" 是过去分词短语,作定语,修饰前面的名词laws。这个过去分词短语相当于一个限制性定语从句:which was called "Indian Opinion"。
6. South Africa passed further laws designed to make life difficult for non-whotes. 后来南非又通过了一些法律,企图给非白种人的生活造成困难。
“designed to make...”是过去分词短语,作定语,修饰前面的名词laws。这个过去分词短语相当于一个限制性定语从句:(laws) which was designed to make life difficult for non-whites。
The experiment is designed to test the new drug. 这项实验目的在于对这种新药进行实验。
7. He had a gift for thinking up ways of making political points. 他有一种才能,能想方设法使政治论点为人信服。
think up作“想出(主意)”解(think of an idea),有“发明”(invent),“编造”(make up)的含义。例如:
The prisoners tried to think up a plan for escape. 囚犯企图想出一个越狱计划。
8. Following this, 在这个事件之后,
Following the speech, there will be a few minutes for questions.  在演讲之后,将会有几分钟的提问时间。
The city became a dark world following the earthquake. 地震之后,这座城市变成了一个黑暗世界。
9. Gandhi was much more than a clever lawyer, a fine speaker, a determined fighter for human rights and a political leader. 甘地远不只是一个聪明的律师,优秀的演说家,坚定的人权战士和政治领袖。
句中的more than作“极其”,“深为”,“岂止”,“不只是”解,常跟动词一起加用。例如:
They were more than glad to help. 他们是极其乐意帮忙的。
Both of them are much more than schoolmates. They are close friends. 他们两个远不只是同学,他们是知心朋友。
10. The secret lies in the title of the book whick he wrote about his early life, "The story of my experiments with truth". 他写过一本有关他早年生活的书,书的标题是《我体验真理的故事》,奥秘就体现在这个标题中。
1) 句中的lie作“在于”解,常跟介词in搭配。例如:
That's where the real danger lies. 那就是真正的危险所在。
I think the trouble lies in the keyboard. 我认为毛病出在键盘上。
2) All his life he reachedout for the truths of spirits and gods.  在他的一生中,他总是设法获得神灵的真谛。
短语动词reach out for 作“设法抓住”“设法获得”解,其中的“reach out”有“伸出手去”的意思。例如:He reached out for a book from the top of the shelf. 他伸手从书架顶上取下一本书来。
There are chances everywhere, but you must reach out for them. 机遇到处有,但靠你去抓。
11. Gandhi believed that one should be able to "love the most ordinary being on earth as oneself". 甘地认为,人们都应该能够“像爱自己一样爱世上最平凡的人”。
1) being 作“生物(特指人)”解时,是可数名词,可以有单、复数。如:a human being/human beings,指人/人类(区别于神或兽等)。例如:
Men, women, and children are human beings. 男人,女人和儿童都是人类。
All birds and animals are liveing beings. 一切飞禽走兽都是生物。
2) on earth在人世间,在世界上。注意在earth前不用冠词。例如:
Beijing will become the largest city on earth in area. 北京将成为世界上最大的城市。
There is no difficulty on earth which can't be overcome. 世上没有不可克服的困难。
12. At the time of his death, one person praised him as follows: "Future generations, it may be, will hardly believe that such a person as this walked upon this earth."在他逝世的时候,有一个人对甘地作过如下的赞语:“后人也许难以相信,在这个世间,曾经有过这样一个人走过。”
1) as follows 是一个固定词组,作“如下”解,用以引出下文。例如:
Their suggestions are as follows... 他们的建议如下:……
2) hardly adv. 几乎没有(almost no),简直不用。它的位置常在be动词和助动词之后,在其他动词之后。例如:
There is hardly any wine in the bottle. 瓶子里几乎没有酒了。
He hardly works at all. (= He does very little work.)他几乎不工作。
3) such...as像……这样的,诸如……这类的。例如:
Such men as these are dangerous. 这样的人都是危险的。
He wished to be such a leader as Gandhi. 他曾经希望做一名像甘地那样的领袖。
例:1.-It was careless of you to have left your clothes outside all night.
-My God! ____.(1999年上海市高考题)
A. So did! B.So I did C. So were you D.So did you
简析:so后接倒装句的意思是“也是那样”;so后接正装句的意思是“是的,是那样”。从这个句子的 意思可知,对方同意说话人的意见,所以要用正装句,这句话意思是:“你太粗心大意了,你的衣服在外面放了一夜。”
例:2. When and where to build the new factory __ yet.(1991年全国高考题)
A.is not decided B.are not decided C.had not decided D.have not decided.
简析:疑问词what,where, when, who, why, how等加动词不定式时要用单数。即使有两个疑问词加不定式,如:When and where to build the new factory,谓语动词也用单数形式。但是,如果两个不定式用and连接,则谓语要用复数形式。答案A。
例:3.__! There's a train coming.(1991年全国高考题)
A.Look out B.Look around C.Look forward D.Look on
简析:look out意思是“当心,注意”;look around意思是“向四周看”;look
forward是“向前看”;look on意思是“观看,旁观”。这句话是提醒对方注意,所以要填A, “Look out!”
例:4.You're __ your time typing to persuade him, he'll never join us.
A. spending B.wasting C. losing D.missing(1995年全国高考题)
简析:waste time doing 意思是“浪费时间干某事”;spend time doing 意思是“花费时间干某事”。这句话的意思是“你不要浪费时间试图说服他了,他决不会加入到我们这一边的。”很显然答案是B。
例:5.I can hardly hear the radio. Would you please __ ?
A.turn it on B.turn it down C. turn it up D. turn it off(1995年全国高考题)
简析:turn on意思是“打开”;turn down意思是“把(音量)调大”,turn off
意思是“关闭”。因为前两句意思是“我几乎听不见收音机的声音”,所以要用turn it up.答案C。做这类题时,一定要注意所给的情景,才能作出正确判断。
例:6.-What did you think of her speech?
-She _ for one hour but didn't ___ much.)(1995年全国高考题)
A.spoke; speak B. spoke; say C.said; speak D.said; say
简析:speak作及物动词时,后面要接某种语言,如:speak Chinese, speak
English等,作不及物动词,意思是“说,发言,演说”,如:He spoke at yesterday's meeting.“他在昨天的会议上发了言。”speak to sb.意思是“对某人说”,如:He is speaking to the little girl.“他正与一位小女孩谈话,”say是及物动词,“说得多”要用say much, 答案B。
1. equal[\~5i:kwEl\~]a. 相同的,相等的,同样的;n. 和自己相当的人或事件
例:He knows so much about the stars that Iam sure it would be impossible to find his equal. 他对星球的知识如此渊博,我可以断定,没有人可与他匹敌。
[记忆技巧]同根词联合记忆:equ(i)=euqal等,均,平;equality平等 / equate[\~i5kweit\~]v. 使相等 / equator[\~i5kweitE\~]n. 赤道(均分地球为南北两半球的纬线)
[常用词组]equal to sth./doing 能胜任 / on equal terms (with sb.) 平等相待
2. lead[\~li:d\~]v. 指路,通往,率领
例:The guide is leading al ine of tourists through the narrow passage with the help of his torch. 导游正拿着电筒引导一队旅游者通过狭窄通道。
[记忆技巧]同义词比较记忆:guide[\~^aId\~]v. 引导;direct[\~di5rekt\~]v. 指引;influence[\~5influEns\~]v. 影响;persuade[\~pE5sweid\~]v. 说服
[常用词组]lead to sth. 导致某种结果
3. pray[\~prei\~]v. 祈祷
例:We're praying for good weather for tomorrow's football match. 我们正为明天的足球比赛祈祷个好天气。
[记忆技巧]同音词对照记忆:prey[\~prei\~]n. 猎物
[常用词组]pray sb. to do sth. 请求某人做某事
4. oppose[\~E5pEuz\~]v. 反对,反抗
例:Most of the local redisents opposed the closing of their hospital. 大多数当地居民反对关闭他们的医院。
[记忆技巧]同义词比较记忆:resist[\~ri5zist\~]v. 反抗
[常用词组]oppose oneself to sth. 反对某事
5. violent[\~5vaiElEnt\~]a. 暴力的,猛烈的
例:The boy had a violent pain in his stomach after eating too much fruit. 小孩吃水果太多,肚子剧烈疼痛。
[记忆技巧]同义词比较记忆:fierce[\~fiEs\~]a. 猛烈的
[常用词组]violent storm猛烈的风暴
6. govern[\~5^QvEn\~]v. 统治,管理
例:They accused the president of being unfit to govern. 他们指责总统不胜任治理国家。
[记忆技巧]同义词比较记忆:rule[\~ru:l\~]v. 统治
[常用词组]the governing principle 指挥原则
In China we have the custom of shaking hands when meeting each other.
在中国,两人相遇互相握手是个习惯。/Social customs vary in different countries.风俗习惯各国不同。/We should respect the local customs of the various minority nationalities.我们应当尊重少数民族当地的风俗习惯。habit
的意思是习惯,通常指个人习以为常的行为,如抽烟、喝酒、早起、晚睡等,它往往是个人在无意之中逐渐形成的,也可指不外露的思想等。It was his habit to get up early.早起是他的习惯。/You must cultivate the habit of thinking before you act.你应当养成考虑好以后再行动的习惯。/Can't you break away from old habits? 你不能革除老习惯吗?与habit常见的搭配有:
form good habits养成好习惯/break off a habit革除习惯/in the habit of有...习惯/get the habit of养成...习惯/by force of a habit由于习惯(势力)而做某事。
goal目的,目标。常用于文学作品中,强调个人精心选定的目标,含有不达目的不罢休、与困难拼搏的意思,该词本身使人联想到参加赛跑的人,他们必须跑到终点。如:He sticks stubbornly to his goal of education reform.
他不屈不挠地坚持他的奋斗目标---教育改革。/His goal in life is to become
a writer.  他一生的目标就是成为一个作家。aim目的,目标。呈复数形式时,指笼统的理想与目标。如:What is your aim in working so hard?你这样拼命工作,图的是什么?/She showed steadiness and courage in the pursuit of her aims.她在追求自己的目标时表现出坚定性与勇气。
这两个词虽不同义,但因意义上有联系而易被混淆。rise上升,上涨,起床,站立。含义较广,总的意思是指依次上升,如自然界的日、月、星、雾、云的上升,人体从睡、跪、坐、躺等姿势站立起来等。该词为不及物动词,其过去式与过去分词是rose与risen。例如:The sun rises in the ease and  sets in the west. 日出于东而落于西。/Price rise every day in those countries.那些国家里的物价天天上涨。/The chairman rose form his chair.
主席从椅子上站了起来。raise及物动词,其基本含义是“使升起来,举起”,它的过去分词和过去式都是raised.例如:Heavy rains raised the river.暴雨使河水水位升高。/We must raise the living standard of the people.我们必须提高人民的生活水平。/His speech raised my interest.他的发言激起了我的兴趣。与raise常搭配的固定说法有:raise a subject提出一个问题/raise one's voice
提高嗓门/raise a family养家糊口/raise money筹款/raise price提高价格/raise
one's spirits打起精神。
place地方,位置,住所,可指任何一块空间,包括日常生活的小地方,如桌旁、架上、也包括在自然或城市、乡村、建筑物等大场所。如:A person can't be in two places at once.一个人不能同时处于两个地方。/We must find a place on that wall for this new picture.我们一定得在墙上找一块地方挂这幅新画。/Sports never have a place in his life.体育运动在他的生活中从不占一席之地。location位置,场所,正式用语,带庄重色彩。强调某一地点的地理位置、方位、也指由特殊用途的场地。如:A post office should be built in a central location.邮局应建在中心地点。/Although Priceton, New
Jersey, is the location of a world-famous university, it is still a quiet small town.
虽然新泽西的普林斯敦是一所世界闻名的大学所在地,它却是一个安静的 小城镇。/The prison guards could not discover the location of the escape tunnel.

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