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高三选修10 Unit 1 Nothing ventured,nothing gained语法归纳
| 文章作者:佚名 | 文章来源:网络 | 文章录入:henry | 更新时间:2008-11-8 | 字体: |

语法知识归纳梳理

本单元主要学习定语。英语中作定语的结构比较多:单个的词(形容词、名词、数量词、形容词性物主代词及少数副词等)、短语(形容词性短语、名词短语、非谓语动词短语)、从句(限制性定语从句、非限制性定语从句)。定语是高考中重要的采分点,也是进一步学习英语的基础。现分述如下:

1、单个的词做定语:

This is a valuable lesson Robert learned from the spider.这是罗伯特从蜘蛛那里学到的很有价值的一课。

The tea cup was broken by Tom yesterday.那茶杯是汤姆昨天打坏的。

I was made to help cook twenty-eight meals three times a day.我被迫一日三餐帮助做二十八个人的饭菜。

The boy asleep (=The sleeping boy)was adopted by the couple.睡觉的孩子是那对夫妇领养的。

The people there are all from a bankrupt factory.那里的那些人都是来自一个破产的工厂。

注意:1)以a-开头的形容词通常只作表语,作定语时要后置;副词和非限制性结构的短语作定语也要后置。2)名词做定语表示被修饰词的用途、制作用的原料、时间、空间、地点等;而形容词做定语只对被修饰词进行描述。

真题;

1.When we plan our vacation, mother often offers _____ suggestions. (2004广西)

A. careful   B. practical   C. effective   D. acceptable

解析;practical和suggestions搭配,该句的逻辑才通顺:“可行的建议”。故选B。

2.—I’m very _____ with my own cooking. It looks nice and smells delicious. (2002春招)

—Mmm, it does have a _____ smell.

A. pleasant; pleased   B. pleased; pleased;   C. pleasant; pleasant   D. pleased; pleasant

解析:be pleased with是“对某事满意”意思;pleasant是“令人愉快”意思。故选D。

2、短语做定语:

Shackleton threw some gold coins and his gold watch onto the ice. 沙克尔顿把一些金币和他的金表扔到了冰上。

Tom Orde-Lees is a selfish and bad-tempered member of the crew and his attitude may upset other people.汤姆·奥德·利兹是船员中自私而又脾气暴躁的人,他的态度会使别人不安。

He is a man of good manners. 他是很有礼貌的人。

真题:

1.All the people _____ at the party were his supporters. (2002北京)

A. present    B. thankful    C. interested     D. important

解析:(be) present at是“出席”的意思。故选A。

2._______ students are required to take part in the boat race. (2004浙江)

A. Ten strong young Chinese    B. Ten Chinese strong young

C. Chinese ten young strong     D. Young strong ten Chinese

解析:该题考察作定语的几类词的“语序”。通常是:数词/冠词/或其他限定词+形容词(两个或更多的形容词,其序是“从抽象到具体”)+做定语的名词+被修饰名词。故选A。

3.The _____ house smells as if it hasn’t been lived in for years. (2004江苏)

A. little white wooden       B. little wooden white

C. white wooden little           D. wooden white little

解析:道理与上一题相同。故选A。

4.John Smith, a successful businessman, has a ______ car. (2004辽宁)

A. large German white                 B. large white German

C. white large German                 D. German large white

解析:道理与第2题同。故选B。

5.Our neighbor has ______ ours. (2003北京)

A. as a big house as                            B. as big a house as

C. the same big house as                     D. a house the same big as

解析:在as…as结构中,第一个as是副词,第二个as是连词,as big是形容词短语,修饰名词短语a house。故选B。

3、非限制性结构做定语:

…Shackleton explained his plan to save us…….,沙克尔顿就解释他要救我们的计划。

The money collected to help the Hope School hasn’t been sent out yet.(collected后置侧重表示被动)被募集起来帮助希望小学的款还没有寄出呢。

The girl standing by the door is my niece.站在门旁的女孩是我的侄女。

The sleeping child is very naughty.在睡觉的那个男孩很淘气。

真题:

1. I’ve worked with children before, so I know what ____ in my new job. (2000全国)

A. expected    B. to expect    C. to be expecting    D. expects

解析:不定式作定语修饰what,其他选项不能和what形成搭配。故选B。

2. The picture _____ on the wall is painted by my nephew. (2000春招)

A. having hung   B. hanging   C. hangs   D. being hung

解析:现在分词作后置定语,相当于省略的定语从句。故选B。

3. Prices of daily goods ____ through a computer can be low than store prices. (2002北京)

A. are bought   B. bought    C. been bought   D. buying

解析:过去分词作定语表示“被动”和“已发生”。故选B。

4.I’m going to the supermarket this afternoon. Do you have anything _____ ? (2004上海)

A. to be buying   B. to buy   C. for buying   D. bought

解析:不定式作anything的定语,意思是:要买的东西。故选B。

5. Linda worked for the Minnesota Manufacturing and Mining Company, _____ as 3M.(04浙江)

A. knowing    B. known    C. being known    D. to be known

解析:过去分词短语作定语,等于which is known as…非限制性定语从句。 故选B。

6. The old man, _____ abroad for twenty years, is on the way back to his motherland. (2004江苏)

A. to work    B. working    C. to have worked   D. having worked

解析:逗号之间的部分是非限制性定语从句,等于who has worked abroad… ,故选D。

7. Reading is an experience quite different from watching TV; there are pictures _____ in your mind instead of before your eyes. (2004广西)

A. to form    B. form    C. forming    D. having formed

解析:现在分词做定语,等于that/which form in your mind。故选C。

8. The flowers _____ sweet in the botanic garden attract the visitors to the beauty of nature. (2004上海)

A. to smell    B. smelling    C. smelt    D. to be smelt

解析:道理与7小题同。故选B。

9. The disc, digitally _____ in the studio, sounded fantastic at the party that night. (2004上海)

A. recorded     B. recording     C. to be recorded     D. having recorded

解析:道理与第3、5小题同。故选A。

10. Sarah , hurry up. I’m afraid you won’t have time to _____ before the party. (2004全国)

A. get changed    B. get change    C. get changing    D. get to change

解析:该题考查get的搭配。get done是半/准被动语态,表示状态。故选A。

4、从句做定语:(常用的引导词:which, that, who, whom, whose, as, when, where, why等)

I yell in a hoarse voice that I hardly recognize as my own. 我用自己都辨认不出来的沙哑声音尖叫着。

The old man whose daughter is a nurse was a headmaster.女儿是护士的那位老人过去当校长。

The old man, whose daughter is a nurse, was a headmaster.那位老人,他的女儿是护士,过去当校长。

The building which was painted in red was built in the 1990s.那座粉刷成红色的建筑是上世纪90年代建造的。

As everybody knows, Jones married Mark.众所周知,琼斯嫁给了麦克。

Jones married Mark, as/which everybody knows. 琼斯嫁给了麦克,正如大家所知/这件事大家都知道。

注意:定语从句分为限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句。that 不能引导非限制性定语从句,在定语从句中也不能直接放在介词后面;但是定语从句的先行词是两种或两种以上不同类的名词或先行词受到某些特殊词(all\only\any\first\last\very\形容词的最高级、序数词等)修饰,则要用that代替which引导定语从句。

真题:

1. Anyway, that evening, _____ I’ll tell you more about later, I ended up staying at Rachle’s place.(2004浙江)

A. when   B. where   C. what   D. which

解析:which引导非限制性定语从句,代替that evening,在从句里做about的宾语。故选D。

2. _____ is often the case, we have worked out the production plan.(2004江苏)

A. Which   B. When   C. What   D. As

解析:as引导的非限制性定语从句在位置上灵活,可以放在句首、句中、句末,在意思上含有“比较”义。故选D。

3. Luckily, we’d brought a road map without _____ we would have lost our way.(2004北京)

A. it   B. that   C. this   D. which

解析:在定语从句中,引导词that不能直接放在介词后。故选D。

4. The result of the experiment was very good, _____ we hadn’t expected.(2000春招)

A. when   B. that   C. which   D. what

解析:which引导非限制性定语从句,代替主句所讲的事情;that不能引导非限制性定语从句;what 不能引导定语从句。故选C。

5. These houses are sold at such a low price ____ people expected.(2003上海)

A. like   B. as   C. that   D. which

解析:该题1)涉及such…as结构;2)as引导此定语从句含“比较”意——正如人们所期盼的那样。故选B。

6. Have you seen the film “Titanic”, _____ leading actor is world-famous?(2001上海)

A. its   B. it’s   C. whose   D. which

解析:在定语从句本身做定语,只能用whose。故选C。

7. Helen was much kinder to her youngest son than to the others, ____ , of course, made the others envy him.(2004天津)

A. who   B. that   C. what   D. which

解析:同第四小题。故选D。

8. He’s got himself into a dangerous situation _____ he is likely to lose control over the plane.(2001上海)

A. where   B. which   C. while   D. why

解析:该定语从句的先行词是situation,where在从句本身做地点状语。故选A。

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